June 1863 saw a repetition of what had occurred earlier in the American Civil War - the president involving himself in military matters in the field and trying to override his generals. In this case Lincoln wanted the Army of the Potomac to pursue the army of Robert E Lee who was seemingly fleeing Richmond.
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Punishment and rehabilitation are decided by the courts although rehabilitative measures (such as attendance on drug or alcohol treatment programmes) can form part of a conditional caution, one of a range of out-of-court disposals (alternatives to prosecution) available under the criminal justice system for adults (18+).
In the immediate aftermath of the August 2011 English riots, the media identified the causes as being centred around a feral underclass of youths who lived in inner city areas and who took advantage of certain opportunities to acquire specific property, mainly electrical equipment and sports clothing.
Certain concepts are key to an understanding of Marxism, a political theory that has shaped world politics for over 150 years. Key Marxist concepts are diametrically the opposite to capitalism and some believe have created a mentality of a society that is very much a 'them and us' one. Marxism believes that capitalism can only thrive on the exploitation of the working class.
Sociological research has seen some key exponents of the functionalist theory. The primary sociologists concerned with functionalism are Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons and Robert Merton. Emile Durkheim (1858 - 1917) was a French sociologist and one of the so-called 'founders' of sociology. In Durkheim's study “Suicide” , one of the most influential of all sociological texts, he explored links between social integration and suicide rates.
Phenomenology is different from the social action approach in that it denies the possibility of explaining social action. It emphases is upon the internal workings of the human mind and the way that humans classify and make sense of the world around them. It is not concerned with the casual explanations of human behaviour in the same way as other perspectives.
By 1935, the 'Leibstandarte' regiment had been joined by the 'Germania' and 'Deutschland' regiments. They operated under the 'Verfugungstruppe', which was a unit of divisional strength. Hitler had made it clear that the 'Verfugungstruppe' was “a standing armed unit exclusively at my disposal.” It was to take its place in the army's order of battle.
Leon Trotsky Leon Trotsky was one of the foremost figures in the Russian Revolution. Trotsky, along with Vladimir Lenin, gave the move for revolution both drive and organisation. Trotsky's leadership during the Russian Civil War probably saved the Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917. Leon Trotsky was born in 1879 at Ianovka in the Ukraine.
Merrill's Marauders served in Burma during World War Two and fought behind the Japanese lines in that country to great effect. Officially known as the 5307th Composite Unit, they got the nick-name Merrill's Marauders as a result of their commanding officer's name - Brigadier General Frank Merrill. The call for a special forces unit to operate in the Far East came in 1943.
Russia 1918 to 1921 Russia by 1918 appeared to be in the hands of the communists (the Bolshevik Party) led by Lenin. The Provisional Government had been overthrown and the Bolsheviks had appeared to have gained power in Russia and that the country's problems seemed to be over. In fact, those problems had only just begun.
The Purges in the USSR The purges in the USSR started in the mid-1930's and continued throughout the late 1930's. Joseph Stalin had shared power with Zinoviev and Kamenev in the time after the death of Lenin (1924) and he had no intention of ever being put in that position again. By the mid-1930's Stalin believed that the Bolshevik Party 'Old Guard' represented a threat to him and unless he did something about them they would remove him from power.
The Lysander was the mainstay of the Special Operations Executive (SOE) during World War Two. The Lysander was used to transport SOE operatives to and from occupied Europe - a mission that was fraught with danger - so that they could help resistance movements in western Europe. The Lysander was ideal for covert work.
Benito Mussolini Benito Mussolini was born on July 29th 1883 near Predappio, in north-east Italy. His father, Alessandro, was a blacksmith while his mother, Rosa, was a school teacher. Mussolini had a younger brother and younger sister. Despite having two incomes coming in to the house, the Mussolini's were poor, as were many families in Italy at this time.
The Boeing B17 Flying Fortress was the main bomber used by the American Air Force in Europe during the bombing campaign against Nazi Germany. The B17 crews flew thousands of missions over Germany and paid a high price for doing so. After the carnage of World War One, many nations looked to a new form of military hardware that would ensure the horrors of trench warfare were never relived.
The Messerschmitt 109 was Nazi Germany's primary fighter plane in the Battle of Britain. The Messerschmitt 109 was a worthy adversary to the Spitfire and Hurricane but fought in the Battle of Britain with one major disadvantage. In the mid-1930's, Willy Messerschmitt was well advanced in his plan for a monoplane fighter.
The Battle for Madrid The control of Madrid during the Spanish Civil War was key if one of the two sides was going to win. The control of the seat of government - as Madrid was - made the battle for Madrid a very important occurrence during the Spanish Civil War. The battle for Madrid actually proved indecisive during the Spanish Civil War in terms of who controlled the entire city.
The Junkers 87 was better known as the Stuka dive-bomber. The Junkers 87 first saw action in the Blitzkrieg attack on Poland in September 1939. Against a poorly equipped enemy, the Junkers 87 did well with its pinpoint bombing accuracy. Against a more formidable opponent, such as the Spitfire and Hurricane during the Battle of Britain, it did not do as well.
General Francisco Franco General Franco was born in 1892 and he died in 1975. Franco is the man most linked to the army's victory in the Spanish Civil War. Franco had been born into a military family. From 1907 to 1910, he was educated at Toledo Infantry Academy and he served in Spanish Morocco from 1910 to 1927.
Machine guns had been deadly during World War One. The same was true in World War Two. By the end of World War One, machine guns had radically changed how wars were fought. The supremacy of the cavalry had gone and scientific and industrial developments had become more important than élan. By 1939, the bulk of infantry training centred around the machine gun.
War Communism War Communism was the name given to the economic system that existed in Russia from 1918 to 1921. War Communism was introduced by Lenin to combat the economic problems brought on by the civil war in Russia. It was a combination of emergency measures and socialist dogma. One of the first measures of War Communism was the nationalisation of land.
The Bismarck, probably Germany's most famous battleship in World War Two, was sunk on May 27th 1941. The Bismarck had already sunk HMS Hood before being sunk herself. For many, the end of the Hood and Bismarck symbolised the end of the time when battleships were the dominant force in naval warfare, to be replaced by submarines and aircraft carriers and the advantages these ships gave to naval commanders.