'Spiritual Exercises' was a set of rules written by Ignatius Loyola the founder of the Jesuits. The Jesuits were seen as a major component of the Counter-Reformation. All those who trained to become Jesuits were expected to follow 'Spiritual Exercises' to the letter and obedience to Loyola as the movement's General was also an expectation.
Category History Podcasts
The Red Terror The Red Terror was carried out in post-revolutionary Russia by the Cheka headed by Felix Dzerzhinsky along with units of the Red Army. The Red Terror started as a result of an attempt to kill Vladimir Lenin by Fanni Kaplin in August 1918 and the murder of the Cheka leader in St. Petersburg.
Christian Wirth, first commander of the Belzec death camp, was born in November 1885 and trained as a joiner and then a police officer. Wirth served in World War One on the Western Front where he was decorated for bravery. After the war, he returned to the building trade before, once again, joining the police.
Drancy has become synonymous with the movement of Jews from France to the Nazi death camps. Drancy, some six miles north of the centre of Paris, had a rail station based there that allowed for the transportation of Jews to Poland. As a result Drancy became a transit camp. 75,000 Jews were deported from France, including 11,000 children, and many started their journey at Drancy.
Nicholas and Alexandra Nicholas II was a highly sensitive man who preferred to be with his family than involve himself in the day-today running of his nation. A weak man, he was frequently bullied into doing things by his overbearing wife, Alexandra. Nicholas had married Princess Alexandra in 1894. She was the daughter of the Grand Duke of Hesse and a grand-daughter of Queen Victoria.
The Russian Church The Russian Church was the social cement of autocracy in Russia. However, even such a powerful body as the church was not unaffected by the 1905 Revolution and there were some in the church who wanted a programme of modernisation. This was primarily found in the seminaries and religious academies.
Adolf Eichmann has consigned himself to infamy as the man who was the bureaucrat behind the sending of at least two million Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau, the death camp in Poland. Eichmann has gone down in modern history as a man of great evil. At the end of World War Two, Eichmann became one of the most hunted for men in Europe.
Russian Revolution - March 1917 March 1917 saw major changes in Russia. Rasputin was dead and Lenin was out of the country. By the start of 1917, the people of Russia were very angry. Why? The First World War had cost Russia millions of lives. Those not actually fighting had to face serious food shortages.
Abdol-Hossein Sardari was an unsung hero in France during World War Two. Despite the German occupation, Abdol-Hossein Sardari used his position to help several thousand Iranian Jews escape the clutches of the Gestapo. Little was known about his exploits once World War Two ended in 1945 and it has only been in recent years that they have come to light.
The Provisional Government The Provisional Government came into being on March 14th 1917. Based in the capital, Petrograd, the Provisional Government was first led by Rodzyanko and was formed in response to the fear that the old tsarist government in Petrograd would call in frontline troops to put down the rebellion that had occurred in the city.
Towards the end of World War Two, and in the years after, groups of Jewish fighters roamed Europe and beyond seeking out senior Nazi officials who had escaped detection. The task of these Jewish Revenge Squads was simple - to kill those Nazis they found who they believed were guilty of being complicit in the Holocaust.
The 'Great Escape' took place on March 24 th 1944. It was, in fact, a mass escape from Stalag Luft III at Sagan in mid-Germany and was not termed the 'Great Escape' until it became the title of the 1960's Hollywood film and it stuck. 76 men escaped from Stalag Luft III but the escape became notorious for the murder of 50 of the escapees by the Gestapo.
Statistics indicate that men are more likely to commit crime than women. For example, in 2002 80% of known offenders (481,000+) were men. As there are a number of problems with the reliability and validity of statistics, an alternative to information are self-report studies. These are anonymous and some believe because they all but guarantee anonymity they encourage respondents to be more truthful than if they were involved in an interview.
Left Realist, Jock Young, considered how changes in Western societies in the 1980s and 1990s might have encouraged rises in crime rates. He considered the impact of marketisation, globalisation and the rising inequality in society. The theme that globalisation has led and possibly encouraged an increase in crime is a theme developed by left of centre sociologists sympathetic to the view that the 'New Right' policies of political leaders such as Margaret Thatcher and George Bush have done immense harm to society as a whole.
The British Free Corps, originally called the British Legion of St George, was created by the Nazis in 1943. The British Free Corps had no military value in World War Two but its founder, John Amery, was hanged for treason in 1945. At the beginning of World War Two, John Amery, the son of Leo Amery, Winston Churchill's Minister for India, drifted around Europe with seemingly little direction in his life.
Criminology refers to any kind of study concerned with crime and criminal justice. It is a term used to include a multitude of topics and approaches. Feminist perspectives, over the past thirty years have not only put some new topics under the criminological cover, they have challenged the theories, concepts, methods and assumptions of most of the people already involved in the study of crime.
Camp 165 was located in the Scottish Highlands. To locals Camp 165 was a basic Prisoner-of-War camp. However, Camp 165 also served another purpose. Based in Watten, Caithness, Camp 165 was surrounded by moor. Its remote setting made escape difficult for POW's. Some tried but found the harshness of the surrounding land too much and they gave themselves up.
The Geneva Convention was created to take care of prisoners of war. Signatory states to the Geneva Convention are meant to rigorously carry out the stated intent of the Convention. However, in World War Two there were many examples of prisoners of war being treated in a manner outside of the 'rules' of the Geneva Convention.
Foreign SS Legions were to make up a substantial number of men as World War Two proceeded and as casualties in the Wehrmacht increased as they fought on numerous fronts - though the Russian Front in particular was accounting for many casualties. By the time World War Two in Europe ended in May 1945, nearly 350,000 men had served in Hitler's Foreign Legions; non-German volunteers from sixteen occupied nations.
The Criminal Justice System covers England and Wales and is one of the major public services in this country. Across the Criminal Justice System, agencies such as the police, the Crown Prosecution Service, the courts, prisons and prohibition work together to deliver criminal justice. The core agencies of the CJS are: the police, the Crown Prosecution Service, the courts, the National Offender Management Service (which covers prisons and probation) and the Youth Justice Board (which oversees Youth Offending Teams).
Is participant observation as a research technique acceptable when something like crime and deviance is being researched? Participant observation may actually require the researcher to witness a criminal activity taking place. What does he/she then do? If they want to continue with their research and if that research is based on participant observation, they will have to come to a tough decision.