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Back in September 2017, underwater archaeologists met a decade-long goal in discovering the submerged ruins of the port of Neapolis. Today, Palepolis is known as Naples.
ANSA reports researchers have identified the submerged ruins of Palepolis near the Castel dell'Ovo in Naples. To date, underwater archaeologists have discovered four tunnels, a defense trench probably used by soldiers, and a street still marked by the carts which passed over it so long ago. The Local says exploration will continue under the waves until May 2018.
One of the submerged tunnels. (Elisa Manacorda/ Reptv)
Mario Negri of the International University of Languages and Media (IULM) in Milan, the organization which funded the research, says “It's a discovery that opens up a new scenario for reconstructing the ancient structure of Palepolis.”
- Sunk by a Tsunami, Underwater Archaeologists Finally Find the Ruins of the Roman City Neapolis
- Floods expose Roman ruins near famous Gulf of Baiae crossing
However, Negri seems somewhat hesitant in declaring too much too soon, because he has also said that the ruins, “could – I stress, could – be the archeological traces of Naples' first port, which means we are right at the founding moment of this extraordinary city.”
Others are looking to future possibilities, such as Luciano Garella, who directs Naples’ institution in charge of archaeological heritage, who sees an exciting option on the horizon, “We'll have to explore a different type of tourism – underwater tourism,” he said .
But what made Palepolis special? What’s its history?
Comune.napoli.it states that the earliest settlements in the area date back some 3000 years, “when “Anatolian and Achaean merchants and travellers arrived in the gulf on their way to the mineral lands of the high Tyrrhene.” They founded Parthenope, a small harbor which gradually expanded through business, but was consistently in the midst of battles between the Etruscans and Greeks.
Etruscan warrior, found near Viterbo, Italy, dated c. 500 BC. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )
The Greeks eventually conquered the port and renamed it Palepolis in about 474 BC. Soon after, Palepolis was outshined by a new city, Neapolis, which was built by the Greeks to the south.
As Archaeology points out, patrician villas became the main focus of Palepolis by the time the Romans took control. The town had been transformed into something of a suburb for Neapolis; a location where residents had some peace and quiet without setting themselves too far from the bustling city.
The submerged ruins of Neapolis were only discovered in September 2017. The underwater component of the city stretches over 20 hectares (almost 50 acres). As some of Neapolis’ ruins remain aboveground, underwater archaeologists had been searching the region for the last seven years in hope of finding the submerged counterpart. Neapolis was partially submerged by a tsunami on July 21 in 365 AD, a natural disaster that also damaged Alexandria in Egypt and Greece’s island of Crete .
- Hedonistic ‘Sunken City of the Caesars’ Recaptured By Divers After 1,700 Years
- Submerged Ruins May Be the Seaside Palace of the First Emperor of China
Underwater archaeologists have discovered monuments, streets, and about 100 tanks that were used in the production of a fermented fish condiment known as garum at Neapolis. Mounir Fantar, the head of a Tunisian-Italian archaeological mission said: “This discovery has allowed us to establish with certainty that Neapolis was a major center for the manufacture of garum and salt fish, probably the largest center in the Roman world. Probably the notables of Neapolis owed their fortune to garum.”
Today, visitors interested in the earliest days of Palepolis, and pre-Palepolis times, can find remnants of a necropolis dating back to when the settlement was known as Parthenope and a few indications left of a Roman villa built by a nobleman named Lucullo. For the most part, Comune.napoli.it says Palepolis has been overtaken by later building projects, such as “Castel dell'Ovo on the isle of Megaride, and by luxury housing, hotels and shops.”
Castel dell'Ovo, Naples.
Archaeology Ahoy! 7 Incredible Ancient Sites Now Submerged Underwater
From ancient hunter-gatherer villages to vast and wealthy cities, underwater archaeology is as expansive as the ocean itself. But if one thing’s for sure, it’s as exciting as it is hazardous, and can answer questions that simply can’t be found on dry land.
We’re going to be following Garry Momber on his journey to rescue what’s left of an 8,000 year old village. To tide you over while he and his team wash out their wetsuits, top up their tanks and polish their underwater trowels, let’s take a look at some of current favourite underwater sites, starting with Garry’s…
1. Bouldnor Cliff, Isle of Wight (8,000 years old)
An archaeologist dives at Bouldnor Cliff. Image via Maritime Archaeology Trust
Submerged 11 meters below the Solent, just off the Isle of Wight, this site was only discovered when a lobster was spotted chucking stone worked flints from its burrow. Back when this site was inhabited, humans would have been able to walk from France to Britain, but flooded as sea levels rose. Archaeologists investigated, and have since found some amazing artefacts, like the oldest piece of string, and evidence of wheat previously not through to have arrived in Britain for another 2,000 years. At 8,000 years old, it’s the only Mesolithic village from this now-submerged area that we currently know of.
2. Area 240, Doggerland, North Sea (10,000 years old)
Archaeologists at Doggerland haul a might mammoth skull ashore. Image via BBC
Doggerland is the area that used to connect what we now know as Britain to the rest of the European continent. After the last glacial maximum, Doggerland slowly disappeared as sea levels rose, and now lies beneath the southern part of the North Sea. The area lost was actually bigger than the UK, so there’s a huge amount to explore and vast potential given that the totally water-logged environment makes for some pretty well preserved artefacts. Of particular intrigue, is a section of Doggerland known as Area 240, found off the coast of East Anglia. In 2008 nearly 90 palaeolithic artefacts, including hand axes and the bones of woolly mammoth were found in The Netherlands, having been dredged up from this site. A site level excavation was carried out and further samples were taken from the seabed. It had previously been thought that very little from this time period would have survived, but Area 240 completely blew that idea out of the water!
3. Langstone Harbour, Portsmouth (1,500 years old)
Recovering finds from the thick Langstone Harbour mud at low tide. Image via BBC
The great thing about Langstone Harbour, is that some areas are only tidally submerged, meaning that at certain times, they’re exposed, making it somewhat easier for archaeologists to access and excavate there. In 2003, two local enthusiasts looking for flint tools made an incredible discovery amongst the mudflats of the area an early Saxon log boat was uncovered. It’s the oldest watercraft known to have been found in the area, and was remarkably well preserved, with the tool marks still visible where the tree has been hollowed out.
4. The Severn Estuary, West Country (12,000 years old)
Surveying in the Severn Estuary at low tide. Image via archaeoleg
The Severn Estuary spans a huge area, and archaeological projects in the area involve archaeologists from multiple counties across the West Country and Wales. The area is known to have been in use by humans for at least 12,000 years, but there is archaeological interest spanning right the way through until the 20 th century due to its strategic positioning during war time. There are ancient forests submerged under the intertidal muds, which have produced some incredible Mesolithic findings, such as wooden tools, flints and even evidence that Mesolithic people were deliberately burning woodland to create new spaces for cattle to graze. At other sites in the estuary, Neolithic human footprints have been found preserved in silts, like those pictured above.
5. Oakbank Crannog, Loch Tay, Scotland (2,500 years old)
Oakbank is amazing above water as it is underwater! Image via crannog.co.uk
Crannogs are Iron Age dwellings found in Scotland and Ireland. They are built on loch sides (or lake sides), and sometimes even on estuaries. The Crannog at Oakbank has been excavated over the course of many sessions between 1979 and 2005, and radiocarbon dating from the timbers found give the site an approximate age of 2,500 years. The structure of the crannog was incredibly well preserved, and gave enough evidence to create a reconstruction on the south bank of the loch. This reconstruction (pictured above) is now part of an educational centre run by the Scottish Crannog Centre, and is well worth a visit.
6. Thonis-Heracleion, Egypt (1,200 years old)
Archaeologists deep under the sea at Thronis. Image via ScubaNews
Some of the most fascinating underwater archaeology is found in the Mediterranean and Thronis-Heracleion is no exception. Referred to in a handful ancient texts and inscriptions, it was though that the city had been lost, or even had never really existed at all, but that was all changed when the ancient city was rediscovered by Frank Goddio in 2000. Since then, huge efforts have been put into retrieving important artefacts that can tell us enormous amounts about trade between Egypt and the rest of the Mediterranean. A number of artefacts are at the British Museum for a temporary exhibition of underwater archaeology of Egypt this summer.
7. Arles, France (2,000 years old)
In 2011, an almost completely in tact 102 foot-long Roman barge was found at the bottom of the Rhône river of Arles. Thought to have been a trading vessel, this boat would have been used by Romans to carry merchandise for commerce. Nearby, archaeologists found a marble statue of the god Neptune fitting for an underwater archaeological site!
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Written by Harriet Tatton
Harriet is one of DigVentures' community archaeologists. She loves museums, skeletons, and a good cup of Early Grey. Her first dig was at Bennachie, in Aberdeenshire, and since then she's never gone digging without her signature flowery wellies.
The remains of what may be a 6000-year-old city immersed in deep waters off the west coast of Cuba was discovered by a team of Canadian and Cuban researchers.
Offshore engineer Paulina Zelitsky and her husband, Paul Weinzweig and her son Ernesto Tapanes used sophisticated sonar and video videotape devices to find “some kind of megaliths you ‘d find on Stonehenge or Easter Island,” Weinzweig said in an interview.
“Some structures within the complex may be as long as 400 meters wide and as high as 40 meters,” he said. “Some are sitting on top of each other. They show very distinct shapes and symmetrical designs of a non-natural kind. We’ve shown them to scientists in Cuba, the U.S., and elsewhere, and nobody has suggested they are natural.”Map showing the location of the supposed ancient city discovered by Paul Weinzweig and Pauline Zalitzki.
Moreover, an anthropologist affiliated with the Cuban Academy of Sciences has said that still photos were taken from the videotape clearly show “symbols and inscriptions,” Mr. Weinzweig said. It is not yet known in what language the inscriptions are written.
The sonar images, he added, bear a remarkable resemblance to the pyramidal design of Mayan and Aztec temples in Mexico.
Mr. Weinzweig said it is too early to draw firm conclusions from the evidence collected so far. The research team plans another foray to the site — off the Guanahacabibes Peninsula on Cuba’s western tip. It hopes to return again, this time with the first deep-water mobile excavator, equipped with functions needed for on-site archeological evaluation, including the ability to blow the sand off the stone.
Geologists have recently hypothesized that a land bridge once connected Cuba to Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula. And portions of the Cuban island are believed to have been submerged in the sea on three separate occasions in the distant past. Surprisingly, there were many mosquitoes there, so we had to keep our buzzbgone device with us.
The structures are on a plateau that forms the bottom of what is thought to be a mud volcano, 650 to 700 meters beneath the surface of the ocean, and along what is clearly a geological fault line. “It’s well known that ancient civilizations liked to build at the base of volcanoes because the land is fertile. So that’s suggestive,” Mr. Weinzweig said.
One tantalizing possibility, entirely speculative for now, is that if the legendary sunken continent of Atlantis is ever proven to have existed, these structures may have been submerged during the same cataclysm.
Mr. Weinzweig simply says that more information is needed. “We’d prefer to stay away from that subject. This is something of great potential scientific interest, but it must involve serious authorities on ancient civilizations.”
The precise age of the underwater site is also unknown, although Cuban archeologists in 1966 excavated a land-based megalithic structure on the western coast, close to the new underwater discovery, said to date from 4000 BC. “Based on that and other geological information, we’re speculating that these are 6,000 years old,” he explained.
“It’s not exact, but they’re very ancient.”
If that dating estimate proves accurate, it would mean that an ancient civilization had designed and erected these vast stone structures in the Americas only 500 years after human settlements first became organized in cities and states.
They would also have been built long before the wheel was invented in Sumeria (3500 BC), or the sundial in Egypt (3000 BC). The three pyramids on Egypt’s Giza plateau are thought to have been constructed between 2900 and 2200 BC.
The couple’s Havana-based company, Advanced Digital Communications, discovered the site, using side-scan sonar equipment to view what resembled an underwater city, complete with roads, buildings, and pyramids.
The team returned this past summer with a 1.3-tonne, unmanned Remotely Operated Vehicle, controlled from the mother ship via fiber-optic cable. Its cameras confirmed the earlier findings, showing vast granite-like blocks, between two and five meters in length, that were cut in perpendicular and circular designs.
But because of technical problems, Mr. Weinzweig said, “we were only able to survey the perimeter of the site. Based on initial explorations, we think it’s much larger than even our sonar projections show. It may extend for several kilometers.”
In addition to the archeological site, ADC has been exploring what Mr. Weinzweig calls “the richest underwater cemetery in the world” for sunken Spanish galleons. Hundreds of treasure-bearing ships are said to lie around the island, several hundred to several thousand meters deep.
Last year, off Havana Bay, it found the remains of USS Maine, the battleship that blew up in 1898. That incident, never entirely explained, killed 260 sailors and precipitated the Spanish-American War.
Ruins of the ‘tsunami-sunk’ Roman city of Neapolis discovered near the Tunisian coastCredit: National Heritage Institute Tunisia/University of Sassari
Posted By: Alok Bannerjee September 2, 2017
A collaborative effort by a joint Tunisian-Italian archaeological mission has led to the incredible discovery of massive ruins off the coasts of northeast Tunisia. According to the researchers involved in the underwater project, their findings probably confirms the scenario that the 1,700-year old city of Neapolis was partially submerged by tsunami-fueled waters, during circa 4th century AD – as was recorded by the Roman soldier and historian Ammien Marcellin.
The archaeologists confirmed that they were able to find streets, monuments and even around 100 containers that were used to produce garum, a type of uncooked and sun-fermented Roman fish sauce concocted from fish, herbs, salt and an assortment of flavorings. Garum was considered as a delicacy of sorts, but which might have led to occurrences of rampant tapeworm parasites insides hosts. In any case, Mounir Fantar, the head of the archaeological mission, said –
This discovery has allowed us to establish with certainty that Neapolis was a major center for the manufacture of garum and salt fish, probably the largest center in the Roman world. Probably the notables of Neapolis owed their fortune to garum.
Now historically, Neapolis, pertaining (partly) to modern-day Nabeul, possibly started out as a Phoenician settlement, established in the North African region. During the Third Punic War, the city inhabitants naturally sided with Carthage, their powerful Phoenician neighbor, which might have caused friction with the victorious Romans after they established their control of the settlement (and renamed it Neapolis or ‘new town’). Many have theorized that the scant reference made to Neapolis by the Romans was possibly a result of a punishment due to the city’s past allegiance to Carthage.
Such ‘hidden’ historical legacies certainly played their part in delaying the discovery of the commercially important Neapolis. Nevertheless, the Tunisian-Italian archaeological team kick started their efforts back in 2010, in a bid to locate the remnants of the ancient city. And now after seven years, they are on the cusp of unraveling the mysteries of the partly submerged settlement, ironically aided by Ammien Marcellin, a Roman who recorded the natural disaster of 365 AD that not only affected Neapolis but also caused severe damages to Alexandria in Egypt and the Greek island of Crete.
Yonaguni Jima is an island that lies near the southern tip of Japan's Ryukyu archipelago, about 75 miles (120 kilometers) off the eastern coast of Taiwan.
A local diver first noticed the Yonaguni formations in 1986, after which a promontory on the island was unofficially renamed Iseki Hanto, or Ruins Point.
The district of Yonaguni officially owns the formations, and tourists and researchers can freely dive at the site.
Some experts believe that the structures could be all that's left of Mu, a fabled Pacific civilization rumored to have vanished beneath the waves.
On hearing about the find, Kimura said, his initial impression was that the formations could be natural. But he changed his mind after his first dive.
"I think it's very difficult to explain away their origin as being purely natural, because of the vast amount of evidence of man's influence on the structures," he said.
For example, Kimura said, he has identified quarry marks in the stone, rudimentary characters etched onto carved faces, and rocks sculpted into the likenesses of animals.
"The characters and animal monuments in the water, which I have been able to partially recover in my laboratory, suggest the culture comes from the Asian continent," he said.
"One example I have described as an underwater sphinx resembles a Chinese or ancient Okinawan king."
Whoever created the city, most of it apparently sank in one of the huge seismic events that this part of the Pacific Rim is famous for, Kimura said.
The world's largest recorded tsunami struck Yonaguni Jima in April 1771 with an estimated height of more than 131 feet (40 meters), he noted, so such a fate might also have befallen the ancient civilization.
Kimura said he has identified ten structures off Yonaguni and a further five related structures off the main island of Okinawa. In total the ruins cover an area spanning 984 feet by 492 feet (300 meters by 150 meters).
The structures include the ruins of a castle, a triumphal arch, five temples, and at least one large stadium, all of which are connected by roads and water channels and are partly shielded by what could be huge retaining walls.
Kimura believes the ruins date back to at least 5,000 years, based on the dates of stalactites found inside underwater caves that he says sank with the city.
And structures similar to the ruins sitting on the nearby coast have yielded charcoal dated to 1,600 years ago—a possible indication of ancient human inhabitants, Kimura added.
But more direct evidence of human involvement with the site has been harder to come by.
"Pottery and wood do not last on the bottom of the ocean, but we are interested in further research on a relief at the site that is apparently painted and resembles a cow," Kimura said.
"We want to determine the makeup of the paint. I would also like to carry out subsurface research."
Archaeologists make stunning underwater discovery near the port of Alexandria in Egypt
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Three shipwrecks dating back to ancient Roman times have been discovered by experts during archaeological excavation work carried out in the eastern port of Alexandria, Egypt. It is believed that more shipwrecks will be found as excavations continue in 2018.
Ancient Egypt’s gateway to the Mediterranean – submerged and buried under layers of sand – is an important reminder of the great numbers of sunken treasures that remain hidden from modern history.
Now, experts have made another sensational discovery in the bay of Abu Qir in Alexandria.
Three ancient shipwrecks dating back to Roman times have been discovered during archaeological excavation work carried out in the eastern port of Alexandria, Egypt.
The discovery, made by an Egyptian mission in collaboration with the European Institute of Underwater Archeology, includes a head carved in glass dating from Roman times and probably belongs to the commander of the Roman armies «Antonio», in addition to three golden coins dating from the Emperor “Octavio”, in the bay of Abu Qir in Alexandria.
Mostafa Waziri, the head of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, confirmed the find in a statement posted on the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities Facebook page.
One of the artifacts recovered from the shipwrecks. Image Credit: Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities.
The archaeological mission has also discovered a votive boat of the god Osiris in the sunken city of Heraklion.
According to Egypt’s Ministry of Antiquities, Osama Alnahas, head of the Central Department of Underwater Antiquities in Egypt, the discovery of the three shipwrecks may point the archaeological mission to other treasures still hidden underwater.
Excavation work indicates that a fourth wreck would be discovered during the next season, as the mission discovered several large wooden planks, as well as archaeological remains of ceramic vessels that may represent the cargo of the ship.
The discovery of the three shipwrecks was made after archeologists dived down to the sunken city of Heraclion, located underneath Abu Qir Bay.
The underwater city of Heraclion is one of the sunken jewels of Ancient Egypt.
Heraclion was an ancient Egyptian city located near the Canopic Mouth of the Nile, about 32 km northeast of Alexandria.
Its ruins are located in Abu Qir Bay, currently 2.5 km off the coast, under 10 m (30 ft) of water.
Experts believe more treasure remains hidden underwater. Image Credit: Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities.
Its legendary beginnings go back to as early as the 12th century BC, and it is mentioned by ancient Greek historians.
Its importance grew particularly during the waning days of the Pharaohs.
In the Late Period, it was Egypt’s main port for international trade and collection of taxes.
The submerged ruins of the city were located by French underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio in 1999.
Until then, scholars were not sure if Heraclion and Thonis were in fact one and the same city. Goddio’s finds have included incomplete statues of the god Serapis and the queen Arsinoe II.
Experts believe that a treasure-trove of ancient artifacts still remain to be found in the Abu Qir Bay, where the three ancient Roman shipwrecks were just found.
The Bimini Road is a 0.5 mile (0.8 kilometer) long submerged structure in the shape of the letter “J”. The structure off the coast of the island of North Bimini in the Bahamas consists of huge rectangular and semi-rectangular blocks that are arranged in perfect geometric patterns. Most scholars believe that it is a natural formation but many believe that its scale and precision cannot be work of nature. If the Bimini Road, however, is man-made, it must have been built when the area was above the sea level which was thousands of years ago. The mysterious underwater structure is thought to be ruins of a harbor or a temple but it has also been suggested to be a potential site of the legendary Atlantis.
The Roman Shipwrecks of Ventotene, Italy
The coast of Ventotene in Roman times was part of an important trade route. It was also notoriously dangerous to ships. In 2008, archaeologists found five trade ships that fell victim to the perils of the area. Well preserved with almost intact cargos, they are perfect for the study of Roman trade and vessels during the imperial period.
Finds off Ventotene
The ships were discovered submerged off the coast of Ventotene, an island on the Italian coastline, situated between Rome and Naples. The area is notorious area for sudden storms and its dangerous currents.
The ships were discovered 150 metres under the sea by a team of archaeologists exploring the area for potential sights of interest in an attempting to forestall looters who have been plundering the area of treasures and destroying valuable archaeology.
Using sonar and mini robotic submarines, the team discovered five ‘high priority’ features on the seabed.
Roman Trading Ships
These undersea features turned out to be five roman trade ships wrecked between the first century BC and 5th century AD.
The earliest of the ships was 18m long and 5 metres wide. Dated to the first century BC, it was carrying a cargo of Campanian wine. Many of it’s the amphorae were intact and remained in their original positions.
Three of the ships dated to the first century AD. The largest two ships were both carrying a mixed cargo from Italy. Goods in the largest included wine, glass wear and metal whilst the other carried mortars for grinding grain and Campanian wine.
The final first century ship was travelling from Baetica in Spain, as indicated by its Spanish amphorae. The cargo was Roman fish sauce or garum.
The final ship was sunk in the fifth century AD. Well preserved, was again carrying a cargo of garum but this time it originated from North Africa. This ship was also the smallest vessel at 12mx4m
Other finds on board the ships included kitchen equipment
Underwater Archaeology and Roman Trade
The wrecks and their cargos are important because they are extremely well preserved. The ships sank without capsizing, preserving much of the cargo in situ. Once sunk, the wrecks have been preserved from breaking up by the current less deep waters off Ventotene.
This makes them the perfect subjects to study in relation to roman trade, particularly as they are situated on what was a major trade route between Rome and North Africa.
For now, the wrecks remain beneath the sea although some of their finds have been recovered and put on display in Ventotene. In 2010, archaeologists intend to return to the site. They aim to continue profiling the sites of the five shipwrecks, to discover and record the exact extent of the sites as well as scanning the sea bed for further shipwrecks
The Uncommon Underwater City Discovered The Story
From the seaside shrine in India, to the middle of the sea in Bali, to the bronze statue that lined the bottom of the Bay of Naples, the vast waters of the earth are indeed filled with the remains of ancient civilizations, where there is also an ancient legend about the underwater city named Atlantis. The ruins of the sea that have ever been found can be a reminder to all of us, that as great as any city - even the kingdom, will not be able to resist the enormity of the marvelous and merciless sea power. Here is a bottom water town that rarely knows its story :
The Wadden Sea is a vast ocean region that stretches along the northwestern border of Germany. In the sea of Wadden, there are several small islands called the North Frisian islands, where these islands are slowly eroded by the waves that hit the German coast. This island also seems to be getting smaller every day, and at least one of these islands that was once about 300 meters wider than the present size. It is known because a few hundred meters from the coastline currently there is an underwater settlement named Eidum.
It is believed that Eidum has been built since the 1300s, and then built again, again and again. Due to their location, Eidum has a tendency to bear the erosion of the waves from the North Sea, which can periodically destroy the city. In 1436, massive floods destroyed Eidum, killing 180 people and forcing coastal populations to move to higher ground. There they established a new settlement that became Westerland. According to the official German website, from the 1800s, the remains of Eidum can still be seen hundreds of years later when the waters recede.
Crete is an island off the coast of Greece in the Mediterranean Sea. Due to sea erosion (and more than one earthquake), parts of the island slowly enter the sea, and now the island of Crete has become a favorite tourist destination to see the ruins of cities and buildings that have been submerged in the sea. One of the submerged islands of Crete is Olous, where Olous was once a thriving city with a population of nearly 40,000. And at that time Olous also seemed "aligned" with other Greek cities in terms of industry, commerce, and architecture. But Olous has one very tragic shortcoming, the city is built on a sandy coastline, not chalky like most other cities on the island of Crete. Recently, the rest of the ruins of Olous became easy to access by Scuba and Snorkel divers in Poros Bay and became an exciting tourist destination.
In 2001 at Fuxian Lake, China, a team of archaeologists discovered the ruins of a vast building at the bottom of the lake. Locals often claim that they often see ghost towns under the waters of this lake, and finally over the years, this story becomes a local legend. In subsequent dives, archaeologists discover standing walls, streets made with tile stones, and debris from all over the city spread over a 6.5 square kilometer span of land. After analyzing the carbon contained in some clay pots, it is determined that these ruins have existed since 1750 years ago. And it is believed also that the whole city has experienced a great lurch, then entered and sank into the lake.
4.Bay of Mulifanua
Mulifanua is a small village located on the northern tip of Upolu island, Samoa. The island is commonly used as a temporary port of ferry boats that will go to Savai'i island. As they were about to expand the Ferry line in the 70s, workers found thousands of pottery shards that filled the seabed. An investigation followed by archaeologists suggests that the pottery fragments are remnants from the Lapita village, which was perhaps one of the largest villages in the region. Lapita is an ancient culture, believed to have spread to people today who live in Micronesia and Polynesia. The village found in the bay of Mulifanua is one of the most advanced Lapita settlements known. It is also the oldest known village, where the fragments of pottery studied are believed to date from 800 BC.
Sometimes, a city on an island will slowly be "pulled" into the sea by tidal erosion. And at other times, the whole island will go into the sea without leaving any trace. That's how it happened with Strand island, located in the North Sea, swallowed by a storm surge in the early 1600's. Since this island has no trace anymore, it is rather difficult to find the only city on the island, the city of Rungholt.
In 1362, the North Sea experienced a giant Atlantic storm surge that hit the coast of England, Germany and the Netherlands. With an estimated death toll of 25,000 people, where this storm also swept the town of Rungholt from the map! After 700 years passed, divers discovered the relics of Rungholt on the seafloor, but the city itself has never been found.