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Which US naval ship from 1905 is depicted on this photo?

Which US naval ship from 1905 is depicted on this photo?

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I found this photo in a relatives old photo collection. Most of the photos were taken around 1905 so I assume the ship photo was taken around that time. A lot of the photos were taken in upstate NY around the Hudson River Valley.

It's a stern view of a Pennsylvania-class or Tennessee-class armored cruiser, photographed sometime prior to 1912. Distinguishing features:

  • An American flag.
  • Four stacks. Most early US Navy cruisers had one to three stacks.
  • A twin-gun turret. This distinguishes it from the St. Louis-class cruisers, which had only only casemate guns, and from the Columbia-class cruisers, which had single-gun turrets.
  • Solid masts. In the 1911-1912 timeframe, the Pennsylvania and Tennessee cruisers were refitted with lattice masts to reduce weight.

If the photograph is from 1905, then the ship is one of USS Pennsylvania, USS West Virginia, USS Colorado, or USS Maryland, as the other ships of those two classes were commissioned in the 1906-1908 timeframe. There's a decent chance that it's the USS West Virginia, since that ship served with the New York Naval Militia.

An attempt at an answer as a guest, because I do not have an account, so cannot comment, and may have spotted a couple details in passing.

Feel free to delete this answer and just add to Mark's

Mark as provided the evidence for a Pennsylvania or Tennessee class cruiser. On Wikipedia, the picture for the Pennsylvania shows 4 casemate guns on the upper deck, and the picture for the Tennessee 5 casemate guns.

The ship in the question as 4 casemate guns on her upper deck, not 5. Also, the difference in hue between the hull and the upper works would match the colors on the Pennsylvania picture.

Therefore, I would wager she is a Pennsylvania class, not a Tennessee.

Un-official US Navy History of Official US Naval Insignia Topmarks used on US Department of the Navy Antique China, Navy Tableware, Vintage China-Antique China, and Navy Dinnerware from mid 1800's through the 1970's.

Of Special Note - Antique Naval China Substantiates Inception and History of the Department of the Navy Seal: The Pirate's Lair has now obtained concrete prima-facie evidence of the very first standardized US Navy Department of Navy Seal ever issued and dated as early as 1894 and used through 1908.

This seal as shown on the demitasse cup to the left and backstamp dated 1894 was the original forerunner of the Department of Navy Seal still in use today which itself was first established ca 1905!

US Navy Civil War Plates, Spanish American War Bowls and Plates, Great White Fleet Crystal Decanters, Cups and Dinnerware - See Below!!

Please excuse both syntax and grammar as this page is also designed for the Search Engines

Prior to the late 19th Century there appears to be only miminal consistency and limited selections to the type of Navy Dinnerware and Navy Tableware used by both enlisted and officer alike. Though functional with a Naval flair, the selection and grade of dinnerware used by sailors and officers left alot to be desired and consisted mostly of enamelware porcelain plates, bowls and cups! Additionally, there does not appear to be much of any official Naval history or documentation (anecdotal or otherwise) of what either the enlisted crew or officers used in the way of dining utensils or tableware up until the early 1890's and very early 1900's.

However, through old photographs obtained by The Pirate's Lair of sailors eating on their respective mess decks, wardrooms and galleys it appears that the white to off-white tin covered enamelware metal plates, bowls and cups incorporating "USN" or "US Navy" were pretty much standard from post Civil War up until the early 1900's. Though this enamelware used as standard Navy dinnerware and Navy tableware was sturdy and utilitarian to hold up to salty seas and repetitive heavy industrial cleanings, it certainly was not made for elegant fine dining.

The photo to the left is of a US Navy enlisted porcelain covered tin metal plate (enamelware) ca 1880's to early 1900's and the photo to the right is a matching enamelware bowl or cup. There is also a matching enamelware cup similar in size to the bowl, but the cup has a metal holding tab with a hole in it and soldered onto the lip. This tab appears to have allowed the cups (or bowls) to be stacked onto a long rod for storage and use.

For a more in-depth photo historical analysis and provenance of this 1890s to early 1900s, SpanAm War and Great White Fleet Era enlisted enamel dinnerware Click Here

To the left is the standard regulation issue enamelware plate and bowl put together either by the sailor in the photo or his family in commemorating his naval service. Note the dates May 1903 to May 1907 which was the typical 4 year naval enlistement. This commemoration is on permanent display at The Pirates Lair.

It is believed that this was the type of plate along with similarly produced and marked cups and bowls were used by both enlisted crewmen and perhaps junior officers. Quite possibly this type of enamelware was even used by enlisted sailors well into the early 20th century during the voyage of the Great White Fleet and maybe during WWI. We have been fortunate enough to collect quite a number of these plates, bowls and cups.

As can be seen the plate has USN in light blue lettering along it's flat rim with the rim edge being highlighted in a dark blue. All in all a very handsome plain porcelain enamelware plate. We have obtained a number of ca-1890 to 1907 photographs illustrating crews mess decks where this particular enamelware was being used!

These enamelware plates, bowls, cups and other antique naval dinnerware can be purchased by Clicking Here.

Note that the Eagle Clutching Anchor insignia on the above crystal decanter is the exact same as seen on the demitasse cup at the top of the page. This kind of prima facie evidence is used to help date and validate the various patterns of naval dinnerware. Also, this 1890s-1910 "Eagle Clutching Anchor" insignia or topmark was the forerunner of todays "Department of the Navy" seal which was first put into use ca 1905.

Note that the "Department of the Navy" seal shown on the above decanter was first established ca-1905 as identified on various pieces of china plates and cups. There is almost no difference between the current Department of the Navy seal used today and the one first established ca 1905. The only difference is that the earlier seal had "rays" emanating above and below the eagles wings, whereas the current seal only has them above. This change was made about 1940.

US Navy Crystalware and Stemware is Handsomely Elegant and Can Tell a Story! The "Twisted Arm Fouled Anchor" in gold leaf was first seen on US Navy china as a topmark on/about 1905.

Late 19th and very early 20th century official US Navy insignia can be found on the above 3 lead crystal decanters. The top two show the 1894 Eagle clutching the fouled anchor with the initials USN engraved on the rear. The middle two photos illustrate the early 1905 Department of Navy Seal incorporating the Eagle clutching the Fouled Anchor and initials USN. The last two photos show another early 1905 decanter illustrating the Fouled Anchor by itself along with the intitials USN.

Just prior to the turn of the 20th Century (in the late 1880's to be exact), it appears that the United States Government was about to embark on a major entrance into World Affairs and was appropriately going to use the US Navy to do it by transporting our diplomats and dignitaries to wave the flag! Part of this plan was to build a great armada of first line dreadnaughts including armored cruisers, battleships and other supporting vessels to be used in what was termed our "Great White Fleet" which sailed around the world from 1907 to 1909. This was to be a first for any global circumnavigation by an all-steam all-steel major fleet or armada.

The United States government in it's preparation for entrance onto the world's political stage at the end of the 19th century realized that if our "first-class top-of-the-line" first-ever all-steam all-steel Navy Fleet which was then being built to circumnavigate the world (while waving our flag and transporting our diplomats), the Navy also needed to have "world class" second-to-none Naval Dinnerware and Naval Tableware along with appropriate manners and customs so as to entertain Kings, Queens, Emperors, Presidents, other Heads of State and Diplomats. We have documented much of the Naval History of silverware and flatware used by the US Navy from the 1890's through the 1970's and this can be reviewed by Clicking Here. )

These antique lead crystal US Navy Decanters and other antique naval dinnerware can be purchased by Clicking Here.

Suffice it to say that before the turn of the 20th Century the United States was not much interested in what was happening geo-politically around the world and nor could it after our devastating Civil War. We did not necessarilly pay much attention to some of the finer or more refined aspects of what our sailors ate from. We have to keep in mind that in the 1860 to 1890's the United States was either in a Civil War or in a major reconstruction and consolidation effort. So our focus in the late 1870's to the 1890's was all about rebuilding the country's basic infrastructure. During this reconstruction period we are quite sure that individual Captains and Admirals of our ships and fleets each had their own exquisite personal china and tableware which they used for everyday and on formal occasions. However we have not been able to identify any official US Navy-issued "fine dining" tableware prior to 1894. A "demitasse cup" as illustrated below in this page is the earliest piece of Official Navy-issue China Dinnerware we have ever found, and it is dated 1894. The next piece with the same Navy Seal is a "fish server" which is by the same manufacturers and is dated 1898. We have also obtained photographs of a "soup bowl" using the same Navy Seal and it is dated "1898" as well. (see below)

Above are two photographs of an 8" long bottle used to hold pepper sauce by sailors during the Civil War. One side has the raised word PEPPER and on the opposite side U.S. NAVY. There was also a similar bottle with MUSTARD on one side instead of pepper.

It is unclear whether each crewmember had their own bottle of pepper sauce or whether it was part of the general galley or mess decks and shared by all. Also, this bottle did not contain the same type of dry pepper we are used to today, it was a pepper sauce. The bottle stopper was made out of cork. This is an original bottle and was used during the Civil War and found in Georgia.

Above two photographs are of a razor sharp, beautifully produced 14.5" long butcher knife with a 9" blade and rose wood handle made by the famous cutlery manufacturer Lamson & Goodnow Manufacturing Co for the U.S. Navy. Note the eagle with outspread wings and the fouled anchor which are both representative of similar designs used by the US Navy during the very late 1800's to very early 1900's which is when this knife was made. Lamson & Goodnow were the premier quality American cutlery producers from the mid/late 1870's and even up to today! However their sole claim to the high-end market was just before and after the turn of the 20th century and rivaled all of their European competitors. No wonder the US Navy and US Marine Corps standardized all of their cutlery using L&G products.

We also have a very similar and rare butcher or carving knife also by Lamson & Goodnow which was made specifically for the US Marine Corp ca 1880 to very early 1900's that has the scripted calligraphy and stylized letters U.S.M.C. engraved on the blade above the L&G logo.

To the left is a late 19th Century and early 20th Century Amphora-like Water Pitcher used in Captains Cabin, Officer's Staterooms and possibly even in Enlisted Shower/Bathroom or Berthing areas as well. Perhaps even on the Mess Decks to safely hold water. This amphora-like water pitcher sits in a circular steel floor mounted swivel for ease of use and to prevent spillage during high seas and rough weather conditions.

The Pirate's Lair has the exact same U.S.N. matching pieces in white porcelain soap dishes, sinks, and water washbasins which were used aboard ship in the 1860's and early 1900's.

The Photograph above right illustrates the Water Pitcher and Water Basin being (very far left in photo) as used in the Captain's Quarters Aboard the USS Texas Ca 1907.

Above photo shows an officers stateroom aboard the USS Kentucky ca-1898 where the hygieneware of porcelain water pitcher, slop bucket, and soap dishes are clearly shown to the left in the photo. Note the steel circular holding rings for the jars and wall bracket used for the soap dish.

Again, very similar arrangement of slop jars, sinks, soap dishes as found in the period photograph of the Captains Cabin aboard the USS Texas. This establishes a standardization of sorts on how the bathrooms or "heads" of staterooms were outfitted and organzied.

(Below you will find a photograph of the restored stateroom of the Ironclad USS Monitor in which a washbasin is shown just like the one here on the USS Texas and what The Pirate's Lair has in its collection.)

Additionally both the water basin and pitcher are placed in round circular steel rings attached to the wall while the pitcher is placed in a steel ring which is floor mounted and allows the pitcher to be tilted to dispense the water.

The above photographs illustrate a "waste water slop jar" which was used in an officers stateroom for personal hygiene prior to the advent of indoor plumbing aboard US Navy ships. This is a matching piece to the water pitcher, sink and basin, water tumbler, and soap dish also found on this page. Note the porcelain ring around the pot (similar to the water pitcher) which allowed it to be placed in a metal ring that would be attached to the deck of the ship. A waste water slop jar is available for purchase and can be found by Clicking Here - US Navy Civil War Soap Box.

The photo to left consists of a collection of personal hygiene porcelain items (called sanitaryware or hygieneware) circa 1860's to very late 1880's consisting of a water washbasin, two soap dishes with standardized univeral mounting brackets and a matching water tumbler also having a standardized metal wire mounting bracket.

The photo to the right shows the restored officer's stateroom aboard the ironclad USS Monitor of Civil War fame. Note the similarity between the washbasin used in the Monitor and the washbasin shown to the left, exactly the same! Also shown is what appears to be a metal soap box with an anchor in the lid. While this soap box may be a period piece and perhaps even found on the Monitor when she was being restored, there was also a soap box for shaving specifically made during the Civil War for the US Navy.

The photo to the left shows the two soap dishes with their corresponding brackets shows how easily the soap dishes could just be popped out and removed from the mounting brackets allowing each sailor to have their own soap and soap dish. It has been verified through photographic evidence that these items with the stylized and plain U.S.N. topmarks were used in the 1860's to the 1890's.

The above photo right photo shows two personal hygiene water tumblers for the head or bathroom with the fancy stylized USN insignia both tumblers are fairly close in design and would have fit into the same metal wire bracket holder. One is fairly plain while the other is very fancy and stylized, but both could fit into a standard or universal wall holder bracket, similar to what is used on the matching soap dish.

Both the plain and stylized USN marked soap dishes, tumblers, sinks and wash basin, water pitchers and shaving mugs (and corresponding mounting brackets) were universally made Navy-wide so that each item could fit into a standardized universal mounting bracket no matter what ship the crew member took his personal items to during a transfer.

As can be seen all of these items including the above water pitcher all have the same U.S.N insignia on them. The manufacturers of these personal hygiene or sanitary ware items were made by various producers including among others the Standard (later called American Standard),Jones, McDuffee & Stratton of Boston, and The Trenton Potteries Company. It is believed that the hygiene ware with the USN insignia were used by enlisted and jr. officers and each crew member had there own personal soap dish and water tumbler which they just placed into the mounting brackets when being used in a community bathroom or head.

Other than enamel-on-metal (enamelware or porcelainware) cups, plates and bowls with the simple USN monogram we have no evidence of any china dinnerware or tableware which consisting of the plain U.S.N. insignia on any plates, bowls or cups. This lack of finding any corresponding dinnerware leaves us with the impression that the plain USN insiginia found on the personal hygiene ware soap dishes, water tumblers, water basins and sinks were possibly used just by junior and wardroom officers.

Obviously senior officers such as captains and admirals as shown in the above photograph had their own private bathrooms and washing areas. More detailed photos and review of Naval Sanitaryware or Hygieneware can be found by Clicking Here - US Navy Simple USN Monogram on Sanitaryware/Hygieneware.

Photo to the left is another waste water slop jar with the stylized monogram "USN" favored ca 1860s and post-Civil War and is currently in the collection of The Pirates Lair. We have 3 such jars, 2 with a plain USN monogram and 1 stylized.

It appears that both the plain and stylized initialed ceramic or porcelain hygieneware coexisted about the same time. Quite possibly the nicer stylized items were used in a senior officers stateroom while the plainer items were used by lower ranking wardroom officers.

We don't believe that these types of high end items were given to the enlisted crews as period photographs show that they sometimes used metal funnels and wooden buckets instead!

Photo to the left shows another US Navy Soap Dish with the fancy stylized insigina used from the 1860's to late 1890's. Note that this insignia matches the one found on the above tumbler and closely resembling the insiginia found on the below turkey platter. It would also stand to reason that the US Navy also supplied matching sinks and water basins, floor mounted water pitchers and floor mounted slop pots as part of the typical hygieneware for senior officers and commanders.

Above are photographs of a rarely found fine china or porcelain large 8" water cup using the stylized "USN" insignia that is actually backstamped with a manufacturer, "J.McD.&S Boston" which was a famous American fine china and porcelain dealer and distributor named "Jones, McDuffee & Stratton" located out of Boston. This company was established in 1871 and discontinued operations in 1966!

This firm was a fine china designer and collaborator (and largest distributor) with Wedgewood China for over 75 years and quite possibly this water cup was made by Wedgewood. However J.McD.&S worked with other china and porcelain manufacturers here in the United States and abroad as well. But the quality, pattern, and style of this water cup made for senior officers of the US Navy bears a distinct resemblence to that produced by Wedgewood in the late 19th century.

The above two photos to the left and right show both a Civil War era personal hygiene bathroom 6" high water tumbler and a large turkey server or turkey platter with the very fancy stylized USN insignia. We have personally seen fine china dinner and salad plates and soup bowls with the exact same stylized fancy USN insignia topmark on them so we know that an entire standardized dinnerware and tableware set was produced. The date of use for these items we believe are Civil War era and used circa 1860's to very early 1890's.

The photos above display a medium size (8.5" x 5.25") Serving or Chafing Dish with the exact same stylized USN as the turkey platter and fortunately it has been bottom marked "James M. Shaw & Co New York 1892". Note that this particular stylized USN monogram isn't as fancy or as pleasing as found on the other USN monogram above.

Now as you have seen from many of the pieces here, the James Shaw Company was very well known and active china distributor in providing fine china dinnerware to the US Navy.

This indicates that by having two serving pieces, turkey server and chafing dish, a much larger and more inclusive set of dinnerware was produced ca 1892 (and earlier) which most likely consisted of plates, cups, saucers, bowls etc etc.

However this particular pattern and topmark has been seen and used on many non-dinnerware pieces of Civil War era Union Navy equipment such as boat bumbpers, sinks, basins, water goblets, etc etc so it is safe to say that it was a "standarized" decorative insignia denoting naval ownership from at least the 1860s to 1892.

Above is a heavy and thick 10" serving bowl with footed pedestal bottom showing the more simple though stylized monogram USN as found on the turkey platter and candy or chafing dish. It is backstamped "James M Shaw Co, New York". This certainly solidifies the fact that this was another significant regulation pattern of dinnerware used by the US Navy ca 1890s, and possibly as early as the 1860s.

The above photos of a Civil War Union Navy leather docking bumper used aboard small row boats illustrates the stylistic "USN" monogram also found on both naval dinnerware and hygieneware, ca 1860s-1890s! Also note the period photograph of a row boat from the USS Onondaga on the James River and the leather bumpers deployed along the starboard side of the boat! This relatively plain monogram has also been found on a Civil War era Turkey Platter that is in the collection here at The Pirates Lair further attesting to the age and provenance of all of the articles.

Click Here For Further Photo-Historical Information and To Review Items Using the Stylized USN as a Topmark

Photos above and to the left are of a beautiful and finely made porcelain china bowl (8.75" high x 3.75" wide) manufactured by Greenwood China of Trenton, NJ and made "expressly for the U.S. Navy" for the James M. Shaw Co of NY dating this bowl from 1878 to 1930's (most likely post WWI and pre-WWII). This is a very simple yet elegantly made with a single blue stripe along the rim. We have never seen another example of this particular pattern and must assume that it was not a widely used one, and perhaps this was a "sample pattern" submitted to the Navy for evaluation.

It appears that the US Navy began training its Officer Corps in a standardized proper meal etiquette starting in the Naval Academy, quite possibly in earnest during the post-civil war 1880s and certainly in the 1890s as it was building its first all-steel coal-fired fleet.

At about this time the US Navy also contracted with various china manufacturers and their distributors to produce top-of-the-line worldclass china and tableware experimenting with official US Naval insignia "topmarks" to denote the specific rank of the Officer's mess or wardroom.

The formalized Naval insignia (or topmark) found on today's naval china and dinnerware initially consisted of a gold Eagle with a federal shield emblazoned across its breast and clutching a fluked fouled anchor with this pattern lasting from 1894 to 1908. This first official topmark was later transformed into two separate topmarks one consisting of a "fluked anchor with a steel stock" and the second into the "Department of the Navy Seal".

Above are 3 photographs illustrating a US Navy Large Meat Serving Platter (20" x 10") and backstamped "Greenwood China, Made Expressly For the US Navy, Jas. M. Shaw & Co, NY" which is the exact same backstamp as found on the above plain serving bowl. This "Chain Link" pattern is also found on Demitasse Cups and Saucers produced by Buffalo China Company! But besides the large meat platter shown above we have not observed and other china pieces using this "chain link" pattern, and perhaps like the plain bowl shown above this was a one-off or sample pattern made for evaluation purposes by the Navy.

We have evidentiary proof that the Navy began purchasing this elegant china in 1894 and ending in 11908 establishing this pattern and topmark as a single standardized pattern of china whose production which consisted of multiple producers spanning over 14 years of multiple production runs.

This white body with gold eagle and anchor pattern has been found on demitasse cup dated 1894, two dinner plates dated 1894 and 1898, a fish server dated 1898 all produced for the James Shaw Company by T. Haviland & Co. of France. A single dinner plate using this exact same white body with gold eagle and anchor was also found to be made by "O.P.C.O. Syracuse China" with a backstamp dating from 1897.

Recently discovered has been a dinner plate using the exact same topmark of golden eagle clutching fouled anchor made by Haviland of France imported through the James M. Shaw Co of NY with a backstamped date of 1908 (see photos below). So here is firm evidence that this particular topmark was used over a 14 year period.

The above photos illustrate two serving pieces (hard candy dish or receiving plate and a lead crystal decanter) both of which further reinforces the indication that this was a significant topmark insignia

Also Note that in the photo image of the US Navy China Demitasse Cup with a topmark illustrating an Eagle with Federal Banner clutching a Fouled Anchor with Stripe Highlights above the Eagle with feathery stripes or highlights extending out from below the Eagles wings. Also, the Eagle has a Federal Banner across it's breast. There are also 2 Stars shown to the left and right of the Eagle which could have represented the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans OR the rank of 2 Star Rear Admiral. (The current Department of Navy Seal adopted about 1905/1906 has two stars as part of the Seal, however these have been designated to be the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.)

We believe that this is evidence of the very first official "Navy Seal" which was the forerunner and basis for the later designed Department of the Navy Seal established pre-WWI in the early 1900's! With some very slight modifications made on/about 1941 it is still being used today over 100 years later! Something to be said for Naval Customs and Tradition!

Show above are two dinner plates with backstamped dates of 1894 and 1908 respectively by two different manufacturers showing absolute verifiable proof that this was indeed a signifcant topmark insignia standardized by the US Navy for use in its Officers Wardroom and Mess.

Above you will find a "one off" of sorts. This is another huge fish serving platter (22" x 10") which was part of the service used by The Secretary of the Navy ca 1890s to 1907.

In determining the provenance of this piece note the 4 Star Flag with Fouled Anchor to the left and the blue field Union Jack with 45 white stars to the right, along with the initials USN placed between. The 4 Star Flag with Anchor as depicted is the official flag used by The Secretary of the Navy, and the Union Jack showing 45 stars, one star for each state in the union, is very significant in establishing the date the fish server was in use and who the Secretary of the Navy was at that time.

Note the pedestalled fruit or pastry bowl to the left which has the exact same pattern as the fish server, however it is manufactured by Theodore Haviland of Limoges, France. Click Here for more photographs and analysis regarding this rare and historically significant pedastalled fruit or pastry server.

The Union Jack only had 45 Stars from 1896 thru 1907 as each star in the Union Jack represents a state. In 1896 Utah was added as the 45th state in the Union and an additional star was then added to the national flag and the union jack for a total of 45 stars. This number of states and stars remained the same for 12 years when in 1907 Oklahoma joined the Union as the 46th state, Click Here to Review List of States as Entered by Date into the Union).

Fish Server was manufactured between the 1890's and 1911. The fish server has an imprinted manufacturers backstamp located on the bottom of the piece with a capital "M" above the word "CHINA" which itself is above a capital "L". This was the backstamp or bottom mark used by the Maddock Lamberton China Company ca 1890's-1911! This backstamp has been adequately date documented and can be seen in Barbara Conway's authoritive "Restaurant China Identification Guide, Volume 2".

So from the evidence we can establish that this fish server was part of a much larger dinnerware service used by a Secretary of the Navy and based upon the Union Jack and manufacturers backstamp was produced ca 1896 to 1907 and used by Secretaries of the Navy even after that date until a new pattern was approved.

Through research it has been determined that during the period in question, 1896 thru 1907 there were six appointed Navy Secretarys so it is nigh impossible to determine which specific secretary had purchased or used this service. However it is reasonable to assume that since this china service was made for the Office and not the individual that it was actually used by a number of different Secretary's well into the early 1900s. Click Here To Review List of Secretarys of the Navy Additionally, yet only anecdotal, the initials USN shown being used on the fish server are in the older pre-WWI font and style. Click Here for more photographs and analysis regarding this rare and historically significant fish server.

Navy Seal to the Left is ca 1905/1906 to 1939 and the Navy Seal to the Right is Ca 1940 to Present Day

The above Department of the Navy Seals are both very similar with each using two concentric circles (inner circle of chain, outer circle of rope) with Department of the Navy sandwiched within them with two stars. However the topmark on the left was used from about 1905/1906 through 1939, while the one on the right was used from 1940 through to present day.

The differences between these two topmarks while slight clearly shows the topmark on the left having gold stripe highlights below the wings of the Eagle, the Federal Shield clearly emblazoned over the Eagle's breast, and the differences between the Fouled Anchor's which the Eagle is clutching.

The Navy Seal on left has the earlier original version that included gold stripes below the eagle's wings, had an "open" Federal Shield clearly showing a blank top field and vertical stripes, and the Fouled Anchor used was a Twisted Steel Stock which was used on the earlier 1894 and 1894 topmarks.

The Navy Seal on the right eliminated the gold stripes below the wings, made the Federal Shield "solid" almost being unseen over the body of the Eagle, and the Fouled Anchor now had a Straight Wooden Stock. This particular version of the Seal was used from 1940 through the 1970's.

The above two candy dishes which were also widely used as receiving (reception) plates or calling plates for personal cards illustrate the original and older Department of Navy Seal approved ca 1905. This particular seal was standardized and used on all china reserved for senior officer's and was part of the Great White Fleet effort in not only showing the world our military might but also that we knew how to dine in style, had manners, and were no longer the uncouth backwater "colonialists" which is how much of the world still viewed us. However each of these pieces also have a manufacturer's date code on the bottom indicating 1909 production, so as to provide us with a specific date of manufacture which helps to date the topmark. Note that both use the pre-WWII Department of the Navy Seal on the left showing 2 Stars denoted that this was used by a Rear Admiral.

The 10" Square Plate is dated 9/09 representing September 1909 and was made by The Shenango China Co for L. Barth & Sons of NY which is glazed on the bottom of the piece. Barth & Son was a well known china distributor who apparently used Shenango to actually make this square candy dish. Obviously Barth received a Government Contract for this candy dish and they had Shenango produce it. Of even further rarity is that "Shenango China, New Castle, PA" is actually imprinted right into the clay which is rarely seen. Additionally, the Department of the Navy Seal has two stars to the left and right denoting a 2 Star or Rear Admiral. So, this particular plate was made in 1909 to be used by a 2 Star Rear Admiral.

The 8.5" Oblong Plate is actually dated 1918 and was made by Mayer China for the James A. Shaw & Co of NY. Again, we can easily surmise that it was the Shaw Company who was a knonwn china distributor which received a Government Contract to provide the Navy with Oblong Candy Dishes. Shaw happened to use Mayer China to produce this piece.

The Pirate's Lair actually has a number of these Oblong and Squarish Candy Dishes, (Receiving or Reception Plates) which are virtually identical to each other but all having different date codes! The first Oblong Dish is by James A. Shaw while the second one is bottom marked as being produced by Shenango with a 10-18 date code! We can readily see that standardizing on both a topmark design and a china pattern certainly helped the Navy to achieve competition from two different manufacturer's while also getting tableware which could sit side by side virtually indistinguishable from each other.

These antique candy dishes, receiving plates, serving bowls, and other antique naval dinnerware can be purchased by Clicking Here.

The above two photographs illustrate another square candy dish or reception plate (dated 10/06 or October, 1906) which is in blemish-free museum quality condition using the newly designed and approved Department of Navy Seal. This receiving plate or candy dish was actually manufactured by the Shenango Pottery Company (barely visible imprint into the china) who in turn made it for the Greenwood China company, who in turn it for the James M. Shaw Company of New York, who in turn had it "expressly produced" under contract for the U.S. Navy!!

The decanter to the right illustrates the 1905 Department of Navy Seal with similar highlights emanating from the feathers of the eagle.

This is the absolute earliest documented use of the Navy Seal as it is used today, over 100 years old! This and some of the other plates in our collection were most certainly used aboard at least one of the vessels which sailed with the Great White Fleet of 1908 in that they were obtained along with documents and photos of a sailor who was on that around the world voyage!

We have another square candy dish or reception plate identical to the two shown above but made by the Lamberton China Co for the Higgins & Seiter Co of NY and is dated November 1905. Having the same candy dishes or reception plates "expressly produced" by various manufacturer's certainly proves that the US Navy not only standardized the shown Navy Seal but also to very strict specifications for the types of china pieces it was purchasing, and obviously purchasing them in a big way.

All of these early produced china pieces were hand glazed which makes them very collectible within the antique china market. (The Department of Navy Seal appears to have been made from a hand glazed stencil, while the gold and white body were hand painted or glazed). But made "Expressly for the U.S. Navy" makes them significantly more rare and valuable.

The footed egg cup to the left is quite unusual and as far as we know is the only example of this particular pattern of topmark. Quite possibly this topmark is an "orphan" meaning that it was only briefly made, possibly for a particular or singular purpose, and did not become a standard Navy-wide insignia. This egg cup is dated 1918 and appears to have been made for the Jr.Officers Mess.

Of note is the gold rings at the foot and middle of the cup. Typically any gold found on a naval china piece was reserved for senior officers, however the square knot as shown was a topmark and insiginia was traditionally used for the Junior Officers Mess.

From the Revolutionary War through WWII the US Navy Officer's Mess was typically divided into three distinct sections: Jr.Officers Mess for the ranks of Ensign and Lt.Junior Grade, Wardroom Officers Mess for the ranks of Lieutenant, Lt.Commander and Commander. Captains Mess for the Captain or Commander of the Vessel.

The backstamp shows that this egg cup (and we assume an entire pattern of plates, cups, bowls, etc etc) was produced by Buffalo China and dated 1918 for a distributor. The indicated distributor is O'Beirne Bros. & Ly** of New York.

The two photo's above represent the two different fouled anchors the US Navy used as topmarks for the Wardroom Officer's Mess from the early 1900's to 1970's. The older gold fouled anchor topmark on the left was used from about 1900 through 1940. The newer blue anchor topmark on the right was used from about 1940 through 1970's.

The older "Twisted Arm Anchor" allowed the arm to be movable so that the anchor could be hauled up into the anchor hawser and secured when not in use. The fixed arm anchor would not allow it to be hauled up into a hawser for storage. The US Navy used both types of anchors. Both anchor types were used in the late 1800's to early 1900's.

The 3rd photo to the right shows some sailors inspecting a twisted arm anchor aboard a ship taken during Spanish-American War to WWI timeframe.

So far it appears that from the early 1900's through to WWII the US Navy used 2 basic topmarks for its official Naval china: the Gold Fouled Anchor and the Department of the Navy Seal. The Navy Seal itself was further differentiated by having 2, 3 or 4 Stars each denoting Admiral Rank.

Note the very intricate, detailed, and elegant design of the older golden fluked anchor with twisted steel stock which was used on the older 1894/1898 topmarks and early 1905-1939 Dept of Navy topmark! One can clearly see the links in the anchor chain. Properly producing this older topmark certainly took more time, skill and money, but it is certainly quite elegant and beautiful. The newer blue fouled anchor represented the Navy's change in it's official fouled anchor insiginia and was demonstrably plainer and less detailed. While nice, this new blue fouled anchor topmark could not compare with the older one.

It is unclear and so far undocumented if the Navy prior to WWII used different topmarks other than the Gold Anchor and Dept of Navy Seal. During WWII the Navy designed specific topmarks for the Warrant Officer's, Junior Officer's, Wardroom Officer's, Captains, Rear/Vice/Full Admirals and the Department of the Navy, Click Here to Review Official US Navy China and the Topmarks used for specific Naval Officer Rank .

The above demitasse cup and butter pat plate clearly illustrate the original Wardroom Officer's Mess topmark of the gold Fluked Fouled Anchor Insignia. The anchor presented is properly called a "naval fluked fouled anchor with twisted steel stock with chain fouling the anchor", and was used from the very early 1900's through 1940 in the Wardroom Officer's Mess and most likely in the Captain's Mess as well. Worthy to note, each type of fluked anchor design was also incorporated into the Department of the Navy Seal of the same era.

The Pirate's Lair has various china pieces using the above old anchor topmark with dates of 1933, 1935 and 1939 produced from a number of different china manufacturer's.

Above photographs illustrate one of the earliest uses of the traditional US Navy Fouled Anchor with Twisted Arm on Silverware! This piece was produced by the International Silver Co in the New Grecian or Grecian Pattern with a production date of 1913.

This surviving dinner fork was part of a larger set because we have a pair of tongs in the same pattern using the exact same fouled anchor monogram. This fouled anchor monogram also matches perfectly with the above gold fouled anchors on the china pieces.

Yes, we know that the King's Design was patented and used from the 1880's, and we know that the US Navy standardized on using this pattern with a fouled anchor at some time, but we have no hard evidence when this occured. Until we can find the hard evidence when the Navy began using the King's design with the fouled anchor this dinner fork is the earliest documented silverware with the fouled anchor.

1944 Shenango China Advertisement
WWII US Navy China by Officer Rank Insignia Topmark

Click Photo for Close Up View!
Hard Published Prima Facie Evidence of Naval Rank Insignia's used on US Navy China during WWII Shows USN-Warrant Officer, Squareknot-Junior Officer, Fouled Anchor-Wardroom Officer, Burgee Pennant-Captain, 2 Star, 3 Star and 4 Star-Admirals Priceless!
US Navy Anchor Specifications 1918
Click Photo For Close Up View!
Technical Illustration of the US Navy Anchor with Twisted and Movable Arm The US Navy used the Twisted Arm Fouled Anchor in its earlier 1905 to 1939 Fine China and later used the Straight Fixed Arm Anchor as the topmark on its china Very Kewl

Below are links to other Antique Nautical and Naval Artifacts that may be of interest:

Authentic 100+ Year Old Nautical Antique Trunks
The Real Deal! Fully Restored Antique Trunks Like Sea Chests, Pirate Chests, Treasure Chests - Perfect as a Naval Retirement Gift, use as a Shadowbox and to store Uniforms and Service Memorabilia!

Click Here To Review Sample Engravings
The Largest Selection of Antique Trunks on the Net to Choose From!
OPTIONAL - Trunk Wood Engraving Examples and Prices
Custom Designed, Handcrafted, and Hand Lettered in Caligraphy on your Antique Chest

Click Here To Review Sample Engravings
Personalize Your 100+ Year Old Antique Trunk in Perpetuity!
Antique Trunks as a Shadow Box and Storage Chest!
Customer Photographic Examples of our Antique Trunks Being used as a Military or Naval Retirement Shadow Box and Storage Chest!!

Click Here for Sample Shadow Box Photographs From Customers
Why just get a shadow box or a newly made trunk with no history! One of our 100+ Year Old Nautical Antique Trunks can be used for both a Shadow Box and Storage Chest for your Uniforms, Photograph Albums, and Memorabilia!

The Pirate's Lair
Division of DataCity, Inc.
78 Canterbury Drive
Stafford, Virginia 22554
Phone: 540-659-6209

Or Click HERE to return to The Pirate's Lair Home Page and Gangplank!
Copyright(c) 2008 All Rights Reserved - Unauthorized downloading, copying or use of any html code, text or images found on this or on any other pages within the www.pirateslair.com website will be prosecuted.

Music Credits: Donald Where's Your Trousers/Drunken Sailor medley by The Bards
The following Text is soley for the consumption of Spiders, Bots and other Dark Denizens of the Internet: All nautical sea chests, or a domed sea chest also known as a camel back.
Navy history and navy dinnerware and navy tableware is fantastic. Produced by the James Shaw or James M. Shaw and Son Co of New York, NY. Also by Haviland of Limoges France.
All sorts of naval customs and naval history can be found here including Navy pitchers that look like amphora urns as well as antique pitchers and antique china or vintage china.
The Pirate's Lair loves US Navy history, and antique china. Along with naval customs and naval history using vintage china to document history is the best ever!

We have from the late 1800's to the mid 1970's china used during the Spanish American War, WWI, WWII, Korea and Vietnam era's. All of our history on antique china and vintage china is well documented yet it is completely un-official navy history. The documentation consists of photographs and artifacts of US Navy Dinnerware, US Navy Tableware and Vintage China all used in the 19th Century to mid 20th Century.

Much of the 1894 through 1918 navy dinnerware as through government contract with the James Shaw Company of New York, NY but actually producted by the Haviland Co of Limoges, France. The beautiful antique Navy Water Pitcher with its amphora like style was used along with similarly marked water basins, sinks, soap dishes and water cups.

This was completely documented by period 1907 photographs of a Captain's Cabin aboard the USS Texas an Armored Cruiser at the time.

Which US naval ship from 1905 is depicted on this photo? - History

The Online Library is the Photographic Section's readily accessible index to Naval and maritime history pictures.

Each entry provides a thumbnail image, a caption and the appropriate credit line. "Click" on the thumbnail to access a larger (average 50KB to 150KB) 96 dpi digital image that can usually be printed on letter-size paper.

To the best of our knowledge, all Online Library pictures are in the public domain and can therefore be freely downloaded and used for any purpose without requesting permission.

For information concerning this mirror version, see: HyperWar Mirror of the Online Library.

To access the HyperWar home page, click: HyperWar

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the Online Library's digital images, see: How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions.

AT LEFT, ABOVE: The Online Library's current Picture of the Month .
Click the picture to see a larger version. If you want more information about it, see Picture Data.
Previous Online Library front page pictures can be found in the Picture of the Month Gallery .

For the latest information on Online Library progress, see WHAT'S in the Online Library

Online Library images are organized by subject. To locate specific subjects, follow the topic list below .
Note: As a result of the recent relocation of this website to a different server host, the Search Engine previously available has been lost. We hope that, sometime in the future, a similar search engine can be associated with the Naval History and Heritage Command's website.

Records of the Bureau of Ordnance

Established: In the Department of the Navy, by an act of July 5, 1862 (12 Stat. 510), which transferred the hydrographic functions of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography to the Bureau of Navigation.

Predecessor Agencies:

In the War Department:

  • Office of the Secretary of War (1789-98)
  • Office of the Secretary of the Navy (1798-1815)
  • Board of Naval Commissioners (1815-42)
  • Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography (1842-62)

Abolished: By an act of August 18, 1959 (73 Stat. 395), establishing the Bureau of Naval Weapons, Department of the Navy.

Successor Agencies: Bureau of Naval Weapons.

Finding Aids: William F. Shonkwiler, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Bureau of Ordnance, PI 33 (1951) Harry Schwartz, comp., "Supplement to Preliminary Inventory No. 33, Records of the Bureau of Ordnance," NM 51 (1965).

Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Bureau of Ordnance in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government. Records of the Board of Naval Commissioners in RG 45, Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records and Library.


History: Responsibility for naval affairs, including naval ordnance, initially vested in the War Department, established by an act of August 7, 1789 (1 Stat. 49). Separate Department of the Navy established by an act of April 30, 1798 (1 Stat. 553). Ordnance functions handled by the immediate Office of the Secretary of the Navy, 1798-1815. Three-member Board of Naval Commissioners established by an act of February 7, 1815 (3 Stat. 202), to provide administrative assistance to the Secretary of the Navy, including that with respect to logistics of ordnance procurement and distribution. Board abolished by an act of August 31, 1842 (5 Stat. 579), with functions distributed among five newly established bureaus, including Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, redesignated Bureau of Ordnance by an act of July 5, 1862 (12 Stat. 510), with hydrographic functions transferred to newly established Bureau of Navigation. SEE 74.1.

74.2.1 Correspondence

Textual Records: Letters and telegrams sent, 1842-1911, with registers, 1842-49, 1863. Letters received, 1842-85, with registers, 1842-61. General correspondence, 1885-1912 (1,600 ft.). Miscellaneous correspondence, 1906-17. Formerly security- classified general correspondence, 1912-44 (5,600 ft.) with indexes, 1914-43. History cards for correspondence, 1912-26.

74.2.2 Special collections of records

Textual Records: Reports and correspondence arranged by subject, 1849-1920, including reports and letters by John A. Dahlgren, 1849-70 correspondence and reports relative to experiments with torpedoes, 1864-84 reports on installation and operation of wireless telegraphy on U.S.S. Chicago and U.S.S. Iowa, 1904-5 and reports, photographs, and diagrams relating to damage to ship armor during the Battle of Jutland, 1915-20. Mixed files relating to organization, contracts, and weapons design and development, 1902-67 (5,684 ft.).


74.3.1 Records relating to the manufacture and testing of guns,
gun parts, ammunition, and armor

Textual Records: Reports and correspondence relating to the inspection, manufacture, and testing of the 32-pounder gun, 1846- 48 naval gun, 1852-78 VIII-, IX-, and X-inch guns, 1855-57 Wiard steel gun, 1861-71 wrought iron gun, 1861-74 XI-inch gun, 1862-66 XII-inch rifled gun, 1863-64 XIII-inch gun, 1863 XV- inch gun, 1862-98 Woodbridge VIII-inch breech-loading rifle, 1883 6-inch breech-loading rifled gun, 1885-90 Hotchkiss rapid fire gun, 1884-91 and Gathman torpedo gun, 1897. Letters received relating to the Murphy Iron Wheel, 1862-63, and to the trial of the Puritan Gun Carriage, 1865-66. Reports of metals tested, 1870-84. Letters received concerning machine guns and small arms, 1871-84. Reports of tests and trials of Gatling guns, 1873, and the Lowell machine gun, 1878-79. Records of gun forgings, 1894-1902 carriage castings, 1889-93 and manufacture and inspection of armor plate, 1890-1902.

74.3.2 Records relating to gun exercise and target practice

Textual Records: Letters received from gunnery practice ships, 1870-74. Correspondence on long-range firing of heavy ordnance, 1911-18. Reports of ship inspections, 1855-72 target and ordnance practice, 1862-92 guns and powder, 1863-67 and gun exercises on ships, 1904-5. Miscellaneous ordnance reports, 1854- 72. English translation, n.d., of French naval gun exercise manual (1834). Instructions for firing large guns, n.d. Manual of diagrams of gun crew positions for firing, n.d. Journal of target practice on ships, 1916-17.

74.3.3 Records of guns and ordnance material

Textual Records: Registers of naval guns, 1842-1900 guns at navy yards and stations, 1818-70 gun carriages, 1883-1915 gun mounts for secondary batteries, 1888-1913 and guns for main and secondary batteries, 1898-1903. Lists of armament of naval vessels, 1841-1903 guns in navy yards and on ships, 1849 guns and mounts afloat, 1860-1942 (56 ft.) ships' ordnance allowance, 1899-1912 ordnance material on steamships, 1846-58, and on ships, 1865-70 and donations of condemned ordnance, 1897-98. Reports of the service of guns on ships, 1863-68 armament on vessels, 1863-71 the disposition of guns, 1863-95 and ordnance equipment supplied to ships, 1871-72.

74.3.4 Records relating to patents and inventions

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1842-52. Letters received, 1844- 71. Correspondence relating to examination of inventions, 1851- 80 license and royalty agreements, 1896-1926 and patent infringements, 1918-21. Reports on inventions, 1862-81. Ordnance patents, 1826-72. Patents and inventions file, 1917-25. Patent specifications, 1890-92. Patent specifications on explosive compounds, 1863-70.

74.3.5 Records relating to supplies, accounts, contracts, and

Textual Records: Letters received relating to methods of purchasing supplies, 1863-64, and civilian personnel duties, 1870. Correspondence relating to shipments of IX-inch guns, 1861. Journals of correspondence, 1845-60. Contract ledger, 1842-62. Ordnance contracts, 1842-76. Contracts, 1912-39 (86 ft.). Record of ordnance deliveries, 1836-76. Estimates of funds required, 1844-1906. Miscellaneous financial records, 1842-1921.


Textual Records: Letters sent by Bureau Desks A (Chief of Bureau), B (Assistant to the Chief of Bureau), C (Chief Clerk), H (Armor), I (Supply), and M (Mount), 1912-17. Correspondence of Bureau Desk N (Mines and Nets) relating to submarine nets, 1916- 17 mine and torpedo inventions, 1918 and the mine depot at Yorktown, VA, 1919. Records of Bureau Desk M-A (Aviation Ordnance), consisting of correspondence, 1918 and working papers, 1918-19. Research data on guns and torpedoes, compiled by the Division of Research and Development, 1900-43. Letters received by the Division of Research and Development from Albert Einstein relating to his participation in the navy's torpedo research program, 1944. Formerly security-classified correspondence of the Production Division relating to test and experiment projects concerning equipment purchased under ordnance contracts, 1922-39.


Textual Records: Reports, correspondence, and other records of the Board on Navy Armament, 1845 Board on Rifled Guns, 1863 Board on Parrot 100-Pounder Guns, 1865 Permanent Ordnance Board, 1869-71 Board on Breech-Loading Rifles, 1869 Board on Naval Torpedo Boats, 1871-72 Naval Torpedo Boards, 1889, 1891, 1905- 11 Armor Factory Boards, 1891, 1897 Armor Plate Board, 1891-93 and Special Board on Armor Plate, 1895.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (40 items): Oversized blueprints of a proposed ordnance factory drawn for the Armor Factory Board, 1897. SEE ALSO 74.6.


Maps (31 items): Eastern branch of the Potomac River, showing channels and a battery at Washington Navy Yard, 1842-60 (2 items). Track of U.S.S. Constellation during its summer cruise from Buzzard's Bay, MA, to Cape Hatteras, NC, with a separate chart of Buzzard's Bay, 1876 (2 items). Naval magazine at Hingman and Weymouth, MA, 1905 (17 items). Plans of cities suggested for a naval armor plant site, 1916 (6 items). North Sea mine barrage, 1922 (4 items).

Architectural and Engineering Plans (24,944 items): Plans and drawings of the Louisville, KY, Ordnance Plant, 1915-65 (5,100 items, in Chicago). Numbered plans, tracings, and blueprints of guns, machinery, ordnance parts, and ordnance plants, including some plans of Confederate and foreign guns and some ship plans, 1818-1921 (17,000 items). Unnumbered plans of naval gun sights and gun mounts of World War I, 1918 (2,000 items). Blueprints of armor plating used on battleships, 1915-17 (320 items). Plans of machine tools used in the U.S. Naval Gun Factory, Washington, DC, 1910-18 (300 items). Plans for the construction of the Navy Nitrate Plant at Indian Head, MD, including site plans and blueprints of chemical converters and furnaces, 1918 (200 items). Formerly security-classified World War II ordnance drawings and plans of a bomb rack for naval aviation, 1942-43 (24 items).

SEE Architectural and Engineering Plans UNDER 74.5.


Photographs (10,672 images): U.S. and foreign ordnance and ordnance tests, including armor, guns, shells, torpedoes, and mines and naval bases, buildings, personnel, trains, ships, machinery, and instruments, 1864-1922 (B, 3,160 images BB, 319 images). Artillery and carriages made in the Creusot works of Schneider and Company, France, 1874-81 (CS, 27 images). Naval ordnance used in Operation Crossroads, Bikini, Marshall Islands, and resulting underwater damage caused to ships, 1946 (BO, 3,000 images BU, 261 images BN, 249 images BT, 3,656 images).

Photographs, Glass Negatives, and Lantern Slides (793 images): Ordnance tools smoke bomb tests graphs and charts construction of the Fort Defiance Machinery Co., Defiance, OH machinery at the Russell Motor Co., Ontario, Canada, and the Linderman Steel and Machine Co. the Allied Fleet at Scapa Flow, Scotland minelaying guns ships machines naval railway batteries and Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels and his trip to Europe, 1917-21 (M, 113 images LS, 680 images).

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.

Which US naval ship from 1905 is depicted on this photo? - History

The Culver-Union Township Public Library makes no representation regarding the accuracy of the information contained within these pages.

A 1958 postcard giving a beautiful, full-color view of the "Maxinkuckee" in all its glory, complete with apparently happy passengers. The blurb on the back describes the joys of touring the lake by boat.

Another 1952 postcard depicting the lower park area facing the beach. Again, the view is similar today. The stone fountain in the circle was one of several that went by the wayside during the 1980s. In the distance, the touring boat the Maxinkuckee appears to be visible.

Unusual view of the tourboat the Maxinkuckee, mentioned in previous pages of this gallery, as in appeared in this 1950s postcard.

Another, very similar view on another 1950s postcard very little seems to have changed in this area to the present.

A painting of the Maxinkuckee excursion boat by M.G. White, which hangs in the Culver Public Library's circulation area.

Another view of the Town Park in the 1950s, from the upper park area facing the beach. I'm surmising that the boat docked in this shot is, again, the tour boat the Maxinkuckee.

Postcard with caption "Speedboat Rides on Lake Maxinkuckee," possibly 1963?

Presumably from the 1950s, this postcard shows another view of the lake from the bluff in Vandalia Park's (today's Town Park) upper pavilion area.

The Maxinkuckee tour boat docked at the boat pier just west of Culver's town park, in a photo taken in the 1950s, and courtesy the Kim Amond collection.

The Maxinkuckee Boat can be seen in the background of this 1965 photo of the Amond family's Chris Craft. Visible are Kim Amond, Shirley Amond, and Capt. Frank Amond. From the Kim Amond collection.

Young Kim Amond and grandmother, Shirley, near the Maxinkuckee boat's usual summer dock in the town park in 1973. Visible is the bell that once rang to let passers-by know that the boat was preparing to launch (Kim is wearing Mrs. Amond's "Captain's" hat). From the Kim Amond collection.

(Left to Right) Shirley, Doug, and Amy Amond on the family's Chris Craft speedboat in 1966,with the Maxinkuckee tour boat in the background.

The Maxinkuckee is docked for winter in this January 1968 photo taken at the usual winter docking spot for the boat, near the boat's normal dock in the town park. From the Kim Amond collection.

A 1960s photo of a night-time cruise on the Maxinkuckee tour boat. Frank Amond is visible on the left. From the Kim Amond collection.

The Borkholder children joined the Amonds on this cruise in July, 1969. This photo shows some details of the interior of the Maxinkuckee boat. From the Kim Amond collection.

The Amonds' Family Funster cabin cruiser on Lake Maxinkuckee, with Eddie Amond (son of Maxinkuckee Captain Frank) in the window, in this photo taken in the late 1940s. From the Kim Amond collection.

Several views of the captain's hat worn by Shirley Amond, wife of Maxinkuckee tour boat captain Frank Amond, for many years. Shirley is also remembered for being stationed at the top of the hill in Culver's town park and ringing the bell to alert passengers that the boat was about to embark on another journey. From the Kim Amond collection.

A view from the back yard of the Edgington cottage on Lake Maxinkuckee's west shore the Maxinkuckee tour boat can be seen going by the pier.

Mark A. Roeder, in his History of Culver and Lake Maxinkuckee, writes, "one famous vessel on Lake Maxinkuckee was neither a steamer, launch, or sail boat. She was the motorless flat barge known as "The White Swan." She had ornate upper and lower decks for dancing and was towed from place to place. She was often decorated with garlands of white flowers and lighted by Chinese lanterns. In her later days she was dragged onto the shore and converted into a building called Crook's Hall, owned by Captain Crook. It was later used as an apartment house. Much of Crook's Hall, located at the top of Harding Court, was built out of 'The White Swan.'"

Later, Roeder expanded on the later career of "The White Swan":

"Crook's Hotel was located at the top of Harding Court and is still standing (a large house at the top of the hill, painted gold). This was the same Capt. Crook that ran boats on the lake. The dance pavillion, the White Swan, was dismantled and the material used to construct much of the building. It was earlier known as Lord House, named after its owner. Apparently Capt. Crook didn't like the name and changed it to his own."

"Pavalion on Lake Maxikuckee," reads this 1910 postcard depicting the pavilion at Vandalia Park.

A "stereoscope" image of the White Swan Dancing Pavillion on the Lake. This image comes from the collection of Ted Schenberg.

"Captain Crook's Home and Hotel," circa 1904. today the house is the Helber House.

"The Three-Masted Square Rigger the O.W. Fowler," a 1956 postcard. Details were given on the back of the card, presented in the second image above.

The O.W. Fowler is depicted in this beautifully-photographed 1972 postcard.

The final docking of the O.W. Fowler 3-masted schooner took place in 1983 and is commemorated in this article from the Culver Academy's Vedette newspaper, "Requiem for a Windjammer." The photo at right, which accompanied the article, shows the Fowler at sail alongside the Admiral Yarnell replica warship, which sank in 1979. The Fowler was replaced by the almost identical R.H. Ledbetter (which in fact used the original Fowler masts), which is presently still in use at the Academy.

An undated postcard of the O.W. Fowler.

Another postcard of the O.W. Fowler.

The July 11, 1984 Culver Citizen newspaper reports here on the dedication of the new R.H. Ledbetter 3-masted schooner at Culver Academies, a boat which replaced the retired O.W. Fowler and used 3 of the latter boat's original masts. The Ledbetter is still in use by the Academy today.

The Admiral Rodman, part of the Summer Naval School Program in an undated, colorized postcard. Apparently this boat at one time was a mainstay at the Naval School? Anyone with further information is welcome to contact us

"Watching the Culver Summer Naval Cutters" postcard, 1910.

Another postcard from the 1905-1910 era, captioned "Cadet Drill."

"Culver Naval School Cutters" on the Lake, an undated postcard.

A 1909 postcard: "Culver Summer Naval School Cutters Under Sail."

"Cutters in Tow on Lake Maxinkuckee," a 1907 postcard.

"Summer Naval School, Lake Maxinkuckee," an undated postcard.

"A Cutter Under Sail, Summer Naval School," a 1907 postcard.

A 1911 postcard shows a Cutter Drill, part of the Summer Naval Program on the lake.

An unusual and interesting image of "Maneuvers on Sailboats" in the Summer Naval Program at CMA

"Naval Cutters in Tow," a postcard from circa 1906.

"A Cutter Race," part of the aforementioned 1937 CMA postcard from Ted Schenberg's collection.

"A Naval Tournament," says this 1906 postcard.

"Passing in Review in the Regatta, Summer Naval School," an undated, colorized postcard provided by Jim Croy.

"Sailing Race -- Naval Cutters," a 1906 postcard.

The crew boat teams that can be heard today on the lake echo this 1909 postcard, "Toss Oars."

"Cutter Race, Summer Naval School."

Part of a collection of postcard images of Culver Academy copyrighted 1913, generously loaned the library by Martha Payson Ryman.

A postcard of Culver Military Academy sailboats on Lake Max.

"Sailing in the Bay, Maxinkuckee Lake," reads the caption on this undated postcard, probably from the early 20th century. The bay is almost certainly Aubbenaubbee Bay, home of the Culver Military Academy.

"A Woodcraft Canoe Trip Down the Tippecanoe River," part of the aforementioned 1937 CMA postcard from Ted Schenberg's collection.

"Under Sail, Lake Maxinkuckee," part of the aforementioned 1937 CMA postcard from Ted Schenberg's collection.

"Landing Drill -- Culver Summer Schools," a 1923 postcard.

A 1908 postcard of the Culver Naval Summer Camp on parade. Supplied by Peter Dutcher, from his website.

Two sailing postcards depicting the Summer Naval School the left card from 1956, the right from 1959, courtesy Peter Trone.


Right elevation, deck plan, and hull section as depicted in Brassey's Naval Annual 1902

HMS Jupiter was laid down by J & G Thomson, Clydebank at Clydebank on 26 April 1894 and launched on 18 November 1895. Ώ] In February 1897 she was transferred to Chatham Dockyard, ΐ] where she was completed in May 1897. Ώ] The ship was 421 feet (128 m) long overall and had a beam of 75 ft (23 m) and a draft of 27 ft (8.2 m). She displaced up to 16,060 t (15,810 long tons 17,700 short tons) at full combat load. Her propulsion system consisted of two 3-cylinder triple expansion engines powered by eight coal-fired cylindrical boilers. By 1907–1908, she was re-boilered with oil-fired models. Α] Her engines provided a top speed of 16 knots (30 km/h 18 mph) at 10,000 indicated horsepower (7,500 kW). The Majestics were considered good seaboats with an easy roll and good steamers, although they suffered from high fuel consumption. She had a crew of 672 officers and enlisted men. Β]

The ship was armed with four BL 12-inch Mk VIII guns in twin turrets, one forward and one aft. The turrets were placed on pear-shaped barbettes six of her sisters had the same arrangement, but her sisters Caesar and Illustrious and all future British battleship classes had circular barbettes. Α] Β] Jupiter also carried twelve QF 6-inch /40 guns. They were mounted in casemates in two gun decks amidships. She also carried sixteen QF 12-pounder guns and twelve QF 2-pounder guns. She was also equipped with five 18 in (460 mm) torpedo tubes, four of which were submerged in the ship's hull, with the last in a deck-mounted launcher. Β] Jupiter and the other ships of her class had 9 inches (229 mm) of Harvey armour, which allowed equal protection with less cost in weight compared to previous types of armour. This allowed Jupiter and her sisters to have a deeper and lighter belt than previous battleships without any loss in protection. Α] The barbettes for the main battery were protected with 14 in (360 mm) of armor, and the conning tower had the same thickness of steel on the sides. The ship's armored deck was 2.5 to 4.5 in (64 to 114 mm) thick. Β]

The First Moroccan Crisis

On March 31, 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany arrives in Tangiers to declare his support for the sultan of Morocco, provoking the anger of France and Britain in what will become known as the First Moroccan Crisis, a foreshadowing of the greater conflict between Europe’s great nations still to come, the First World War.

The kaiser did not have any substantive interest in Morocco neither did the German government. The central purpose of his appearance was to disrupt the Anglo-French Entente, formed in April 1904. The Entente Cordiale, as it was known, was originally intended not as an alliance against Germany but as a settlement of long-standing imperialist rivalries between Britain and France in North Africa. By its terms, Britain could pursue its interests in Egypt, while France was free to expand westward from Algeria into Morocco, the last territory that remained independent in the region. France subsequently signed an agreement with Spain dividing Morocco into spheres of influence, with France receiving the greater part.

Angered by its exclusion from the decisions made about North Africa, Germany believed that the Anglo-French Entente went a long way towards the creation of a new diplomatic balance in Europe itself. An international convention had guaranteed the independence of Morocco in 1880 Germany now saw that the friendship between two of Europe’s most powerful nations threatened to override this, and thus also posed a challenge to Germany’s own influence in Europe and the world.

With much pomp and circumstance, Wilhelm—whose ship had faced gale-force winds on its passage to North Africa𠅊rrived in Tangiers on March 31, 1905. In what would be known as the open door speech, he announced that he looked upon the sultan of Morocco as the ruler of a free and independent empire subject to no foreign control and that he himself would always negotiate with the sultan. He also stated that he expected Germany to have advantages in trade and commerce with Morocco equal to that of other countries. Wilhelm’s sensational appearance marked an aggressive departure from the German foreign policy under the legendary Otto von Bismarck, who as chancellor had united the German empire in 1871 and had advocated conciliatory gestures towards France and other European rivals as a key part of German foreign policy.

Although Germany had intended aggressive action in Morocco to place a wedge between France and Britain, it in fact had the opposite effect, strengthening the bond between the two countries due to their mutual suspicion of Germany. What began as mere friendship turned, after the First Moroccan Crisis, into a type of informal military alliance, including conversations between the British and French governments and military staffs and later, a mutual defense agreement with a third country, Russia.

In the wake of the kaiser’s appearance, an international conference convened in Algeciras, Spain, in January 1906 to conclude an agreement about Morocco. The resulting convention awarded France a controlling interest in Moroccan affairs, but guaranteed equality of trade and economic freedom for every nation and limited any colonial action by any nation without consultation with the other signatories. A Second Moroccan Crisis flared in April 1911, when the French pushed troops into the country, claiming to be defending the sultan against riots that had erupted in Fez but actually violating the terms of the Algeciras convention. In response, Germany sent its own warship, the Panther, which arrived in the port of Agadir on May 21, intensifying the enmity between the two nations and, by extension, their allies.

Slightly more than two years before the outbreak of World War I, then, the two Moroccan crises left no doubt that the traditional power balance in Europe had shifted into large blocs of power, with Germany relatively isolated on one side𠅎njoying only lukewarm support from Austria-Hungary and Italy𠅊nd Britain, France, and Russia on the other.

Which US naval ship from 1905 is depicted on this photo? - History

Vessel Type EC2: The Liberty Ship
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Introduction "We did it before and we can do it again!" So echoed the clarion call to American shipbuilders to mobilize for construction of a new fleet of troopships in 1941.(The image above depicts the unloading of U.S. Liberty Ships at Khorramshahr, Persia, during WW II. The image is reproduced by permission from the Richard H. Jansen Exhibit in the U.S Army Art Collection Online Gallery.)

"Built by the mile and chopped off by the yard," and delivered at the rate of one a day, American ingenuity and can-do — facing a global challenge at the end of 1941 — transformed its shipbuilding industry and produced more than 2,700 Liberty ships in five years to move men and materiel to the front. (In the photo at left, a small armada of Henry J. Kaiser's "Liberty Fleet" awaits delivery.

The Liberty ships — a vast new fleet for the war effort — was built in a national "Virtual Shipyard" that harnessed skills, resources, and facilities all across America. From 1941 to 1945, the United States increased its shipbuilding capacity by more than 1,200% and produced over 2,700 Liberty Ships, 800 Victory Vessels, 320 T-2 Tankers, and various other commercial and naval auxiliary vessels for a total of 5,200 ships constructed for the period.

This accomplishment required a revolution in shipbuilding, or, more precisely, ship production. Under the ingenious leadership of Henry J. Kaiser, yards were laid out along revolutionary principles as assembly plants for the 30,000-plus components, produced in thousands of factories in more than thirty-two states, that went into the making of a Liberty Ship. Modular construction techniques were created which forever changed the face of shipbuilding, portable units for continuous welding were developed, and conventional tools and ways were abandoned. Shipbuilding technology was advanced by at least 20 years during this period and man-hour requirements were reduced by about one-third of those previously required in construction of similar ships.

Perhaps most remarkable was the diversity of the Americans who built Kaiser's "Liberty Fleet" — probably only one in 200 had seen a shipyard before and 25% had not ever seen the sea. Many of his executives had not previously faced ship construction problems, and so they approached their new tasks — as indeed the whole organization did — with open minds and no preconceived theories about conventional shipbuilding, but with the determination to get things done quickly, efficiently, and with the minimum wastage of time, materials, and labor.

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Liberty Ship Characteristics
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The Master List of Liberty Ships The list is by full name including initials and includes the hull number for all Liberty ships built. Liberty ships, nicknamed "ugly ducklings" by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, were designated EC2. Sources differ on the number of Libertys built the official Maritime Commision report states 2,751. (Sources: Liberty Ships: The People Behind the Names , Capt. Robert Deschamps, Project Liberty Ship, PO Box 25846, Baltimore, MD, 21224-0846, 1997. Liberty Ships, The Ugly Ducklings of World War II , John G. Bunker, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1972. The liberty ships The history of the"emergency" type cargo ships constructed in the United States during World War II , L. A. Sawyer and W. H. Mitchell, Cornell Maritime Press, Cambridge, MD,1970.)

To find Liberty Ship List Launching dates, consult the Liberty Ship Database at http://www.uh.edu/

3040 B. Charney Vladeck
2067 B. F. Irvine
1622 B. F. Shaw
0165 Banjamin Williams
2857 Banner Seam
1827 Barbara Frietchie
2348 Barney Kirschbaum
2196 Barrett Wendell
0813 Bartholomew Gosnold
2460 Basilan
2852 Beckley Seam
3011 Belgian Tenacity
3072 Belgian Unity
3070 Belle Isle
1605 Belva Lockwood
2442 Ben A. Ruffin
2543 Ben B. Lindsey
1788 Ben F. Dixon
1844 Ben H. Miller
2024 Ben Holladay
2432 Ben Robertson
2080 Ben T. Osborne
0844 Benito Jaurez
0107 Benjamin Huntington
2834 Benjamin A. Fisher
0459 Benjamin Bonneville
0101 Benjamin Bourn
2867 Benjamin Brown French
2786 Benjamin Carpenter
0058 Benjamin Chew
0125 Benjamin Contee
1646 Benjamin D. Wilson
2318 Benjamin F. Coston
0066 Benjamin Franklin
0282 Benjamin Goodhue
2146 Benjamin H. Brewster
0515 Benjamin H. Bristow
1609 Benjamin H. Grierson
1514 Benjamin H. Hill
0742 Benjamin H. Latrobe
0025 Benjamin Harrison
0913 Benjamin Hawkins
1108 Benjamin Holt
0675 Benjamin Ide Wheeler
0716 Benjamin Lundy
0739 Benjamin N. Cardozo
2673 Benjamin Peixotto
0664 Benjamin R. Curtis
0855 Benjamin R. Milam
0303 Benjamin Rush
2418 Benjamin Schlesinger
2818 Benjamin Silliman
0169 Benjamin Smith
2700 Benjamin Warner
2773 Benjamin Waterhouse
0055 Bernard Carter
2994 Bernard L. Rodman
0966 Bernard N. Baker
2168 Bernardo O'Higgins
3079 Bert Williams
2935 Betram G. Goodhue
0476 Betsy Ross
0873 Betty Zane
0116 Big Foot Wallace
1667 Billy Mitchell
1687 Billy Sunday
2039 Binger Hermann
2332 Bjarne A. Lia
1023 Black Hawk
2849 Bon Air Seam
0648 Booker T. Washington
1690 Brand Whitlock
1721 Brander Matthews
0200 Bret Harte
0633 Brigham Young
0658 Brockholst Livingston
2204 Bronson Alcott
2458 Burias
0968 Bushrod Washington
0351 Button Gwinnett
1848 Byron Darnton

2316 C. Francis Jenkins
3054 C. H. M. Jones
2064 C. J. Jones
2242 C. K. McClatchy
2504 C. W. Post
0916 Caesar Rodney
1782 Caleb C. Wheeler
0078 Caleb Strong
3081 Calvin Austin
0773 Calvin Coolidge
0920 Cardinal Gibbons
3129 Cardinal O'Connell
2737 Carl B. Eielson
2312 Carl E. Ladd
2748 Carl G. Barth
1906 Carl R. Gray
0602 Carl Schurz
1847 Carl Thusgard
2833 Carl Zachary Webb
1633 Charles H. Windham
0698 Carlos Carrillo
2947 Carlos J. Finiay
1891 Carlston Ellis
2557 Carole Lombard
0022 Carter Braxton
1053 Casimir Pulaski
2112 Casper S. Yost
1626 Cass Gilbert
2373 Cassius Hudson
1805 Cebu
2284 Cecil G. Sellers
2457 Cecil N. Bean
0118 Champ Clark
2073 Charles A. Broadwater
1991 Charles A. Dana
2336 Charles A. Draper
2869 Charles A. Keffer
0985 Charles A. McAllister
2678 Charles A. McCue
1680 Charles A. Warfield
1925 Charles A. Wickliffe
2202 Charles A. Young
0313 Charles Brantley Aycock
0999 Charles Bulfinch
1067 Charles C. Jones
1773 Charles C. Long
0151 Charles C. Pinckney
2402 Charles C. Randleman
0015 Charles Carroll
1653 Charles Crocker
1976 Charles D. Mclver
1661 Charles D. Poston
2327 Charles D. Walcott
3013 Charles Dauray
2148 Charles Devens
1107 Charles E. Duryea
2147 Charles E. Smith
2249 Charles F. Amidon
2548 Charles Fort
2140 Charles G. Coutant
2676 Charles G. Glover
2426 Charles Goodnight
0587 Charles Goodyear
0591 Charles Gordon Curtis
3145 Charles H. Cuglo
1069 Charles H. Herty
3001 Charles H. Lanham
2329 Charles H. Marshall
3117 Charles H. Shaw
1043 Charles Henderson
2691 Charles J. Colden
2909 Charles J. Finger
0517 Charles J. Folger
2765 Charles John Seghers
2974 Charles L. McNary
1649 Charles Lummis
0430 Charles M. Conrad
0422 Charles M. Hall
2060 Charles M. Russell
0964 Charles M. Schwab
2420 Charles Morgan
3096 Charles N. Cole
1710 Charles N. McGroarty
2098 Charles Nordhoff
0471 Charles P. Steinmetz
2232 Charles Paddock
0965 Charles Piez
1583 Charles Robinson
0518 Charles S. Fairchild
2376 Charles S. Haight
1818 Charles Scribner
0785 Charles Sumner
1909 Charles T. Yerkes
3064 Charles Tufts
0789 Charles W. Eliot
2380 Charles W. Stiles
2461 Charles W. Wooster
0460 Charles Wilkes
0605 Charles Willson Peale
2787 Charlotte Cushman
1892 Charlotte P. Gilman
1995 Chatham C. Lyon
2111 Chief Charlet
1615 Chief Joseph
2322 Chief Osceola
0513 Chief Ouray
0613 Chief Washakie
2856 Chilton Seam
2637 Chourre
2811 Christian Bergh
0991 Christian Michelsen planned as John M. T. Finney
1563 Christopher C. Andrews
0872 Christopher Gadsden
0900 Christopher Gale
1603 Christopher Greenup
1887 Christopher L. Sholes
0021 Christopher Newport
2919 Christopher S. Flanagan
1115 Christy Mathewson
2642 Chung Tung
0636 Clara Barton
2555 Clarance H. Matson
1660 Clarence Darrow
3101 Clarence F. Peck
1585 Clarence King
2972 Clarence Roberts
2439 Clark Howell
0741 Clark Mills
3139 Claude Kitchin
2714 Claus Spreckles
1992 Clement Clay
0565 Cleveland Abbe
2759 Cleveland Forbes
0952 Clifford D. Mallory
2998 Clifford E. Ashby
2056 Clinton Kelly
2981 Clyde Austin Dunning
2121 Clyde L. Seavey
3073 Coasters Harbor
0744 Colin P. Kelly_Jr.
2795 Collin McKinney
0860 Collis P. Huntington
1577 Conrad Kohrs
0990 Conrad Weiser
0911 Cornelia P. Spencer
1857 Cornelius Cole
3121 Cornelius Ford
0543 Cornelius Gilllam
0861 Cornelius Harnett
2744 Cornelius Vanderbilt
0922 Cotton Mather
0349 Crawford W. Long
1018 Crosby S. Noyes
1830 Culebra Island
1601 Cushing EelIs
2003 Cushman K. Davis
3080 Cuttyhunk Island
2820 Cybele
2975 Cyril G. Hopkins
2792 Cyrus Adler
0820 Cyrus H. K. Curtis
0332 Cyrus H. McCormick
1555 Cyrus Hamlin
1905 Cyrus K. Holliday
2109 Cyrus T. Brady
1105 Cyrus W. Field

0464 Dan Beard
1828 Daniel Appleton
0069 Daniel Boone
0102 Daniel Carroll
0924 Daniel Chester French
0715 Daniel Drake
2918 Daniel E. Garrett
2743 Daniel G. Reid
0875 Daniel H. Hill
0557 Daniel H. Lownsdale
0106 Daniel Hiester
0129 Daniel Huger
2988 Daniel L. Johnston
0149 Daniel Morgan
0619 Daniel S. Lamont
0211 Daniel Webster
0925 Daniel Willard
2838 Darel M. Ritter
2136 Daulton Mann
2237 David A. Curry
2089 David B. Henderson
1511 David B. Johnson
1706 David Belasco
0327 David Bushnell
0909 David Caldwell
0502 David Davis
1762 David Devries
2047 David Douglas
0470 David Dudley Field
1666 David E. Hughes
2068 David F. Barry
1989 David F. Houston
0845 David G. Burnet
0317 David G. Farragut
0441 David Gaillard
2176 David Hewes
1741 David Holmes
0506 David J. Brewer
0896 David L. Swain
2500 David L. Yulee
2715 David Lubin
1867 David R. Francis
1901 David Rittenhouse
0100 David S. Terry
0472 David Starr Jordan
0168 David Stone
2065 David Thompson
1948 David Wilmot
0096 Davy Crockett
1629 De Witt Clinton
2620 Deborah Gannett
2043 Delazon Smith
2648 Dexter W. Fellows
2658 Diligence
1530 Dolly Madison
1874 Don Marquis
3104 Donald H. Holland
2150 Donald M. Dickinson
2040 Donald MacLeay
2843 Donald S. Wright
2360 Donald W. Bain
2341 Dudley H. Thomas
1059 Dudley M. Hughes
2378 Duncan L. Clinch
1529 Duncan U. Fletcher
2066 Dunham Wright
2674 Dutiful
1876 Dwight B. Heard
1526 Dwight L. Moody
1206 Dwight W. Morrow
1671 D. W. Harrington

2761 E. A. Bryan
2777 E. A. Burnett
2277 E. A. Christenson
0859 E. A. Peden
2804 E. G. Hall
1600 E. H. Harriman
2229 E. H. Sothern
1519 E. Kirby Smith
2854 Eagle Seam
2440 Earl Layman
0186 Edgar Allan Poe
1541 Edgar E. Clark
2164 Edgar W. Nye
1809 Edith Wharton
0710 Edmund Fanning
3074 Edmond Mallet
2087 Edmund F. Dickins
2255 Edmund G. Ross
0712 Edmund Randolph
0989 Edvard Grieg planned as Thomas F. Bayard
2472 Edward A. Filene
1118 Edward A. MacDowell
2660 Edward A. Savoy
0889 Edward B. Dudley
2612 Edward B. Haines
0526 Edward Bates
1625 Edward Bellamy
1819 Edward Bruce
0853 Edward Burleson
2029 Edward Canby
1801 Edward Cook
2057 Edward D. Baker
1499 Edward D. White
2764 Edward E. Hale
3045 Edward E. Spafford
2010 Edward Eggleston
0575 Edward Everett
2712 Edward G. Acheson
2959 Edward G. Janeway
2211 Edward H. Crockett
2891 Edward J. Berwind
2233 Edward J. O'Brien
2315 Edward K. Collins
2207 Edward Kavanagh
1002 Edward L. Grant
3063 Edward L. Logan
2583 Edward Lander
0713 Edward Livingston
1209 Edward M. House
3003 Edward N. Hinton
0963 Edward N. Hurley
2072 Edward N. Westcott
1505 Edward P. Alexander
0456 Edward P. Costigan
2690 Edward P. Ripley
1913 Edward Paine
0772 Edward Preble
2384 Edward R. Squibb
1979 Edward Richardson
0483 Edward Rowland Sill
0220 Edward Rutledge
2776 Edward S. Hough
1732 Edward Sparrow
2469 Edward W. Bok
3147 Edward W. Burton
1645 Edward W. Scripps
1816 Edwin A. Robinson
2465 Edwin A. Stevens
1864 Edwin Abbey
0606 Edwin Booth
2749 Edwin C. Musick
2344 Edwin D. Howard
1221 Edwin G. Weed
3142 Edwin H. Duff
1861 Edwin Joseph O'Hara
1755 Edwin L. Drake
1071 Edwin L. Godkin
0564 Edwin M. Stanton
0284 Edwin Markham
2970 Edwin S. Nattleton
1561 Edwin T. Meredith
1946 Edwin W. Moore
0083 Egbert Benson
0983 Elbert Hubbard completed US Navy Mindanao
0279 Elbridge Gerry
2933 Eleazar Lord
0038 Eleazar Wheelock
0264 Eli Whitney
1034 Elias Boudinot
2191 Elias H. Derby
0354 Elias Howe
3110 Elias Reisberg
0691 Elihu B. Washburne
1524 Elihu Root
0427 Elihu Thomson
0240 Elihu Yale
3059 Elijah Cobb
3012 Elijah Kellog
1610 Elijah P. Lovejoy
0558 Elijah White
2559 Elinor Wylie
0777 Eliphalet Nott
1110 Elisha Graves Otis
0899 Elisha Mitchell
2520 Elisha P. Ferry
1922 Eliza Jane Nicholson
0478 Elizabeth Blackwell
1217 Elizabeth C. Bellamy
0588 Elmer A. Sperry
2414 Eloy Alfaro
3107 Elwin F. Knowles
2739 Elwood Haynes
2579 Elwood Mead
2139 Emile Berliner
0339 Emily Dickinson
1772 Emma Lazarus
0783 Emma Willard
2275 Emmet D. Boyle
0825 Enoch Train
2537 Enos A. Mills
0883 Ephraim Brevard
2028 Ephraim W. Baughman
1950 Erastus Smith
2016 Eric V. Hauser
3108 Ernest L. Dawson
3033 Ernest W. Gibson
0034 Esek Hopkins
2115 Ethan A. Hitchcock
0204 Ethan Allen
2486 Ethelbert Nevin
1669 Eugene B. Daskam
2209 Eugene E. O'Donnell
0340 Eugene Field
0791 Eugene Hale
0556 Eugene Skinner
2368 Eugene T. Chamberlain
1933 Eugene W. Hilgard
0631 Ewing Young
0780 Ezra Cornell
3087 Ezra Meech
0611 Ezra Meeker
0798 Ezra Weston

0081 F. A. C. Muhlenberg
0487 F. Marion Crawford
3086 F. Scott Fitzgerald
2365 F. Southall Farrar
1039 F. T. Frelinghuysen
2681 Faithful
0639 Felipe De Neve
2924 Felipi Debastrop
0352 Felix Grundy
2037 Felix Hathaway
2391 Felix Riesenberg
2177 Ferdinand A. Silcox
3055 Ferdinand Gagnon
2799 Ferdinand R. Hassler
2186 Ferdinand Westdahl
0814 Ferdinando George
2488 Filipp Mazzei
1678 Finley Peter Dunne
0233 Fisher Ames
0838 Fitzhugh Lee
0649 FitzJohn Porter
0885 Flora MacDonald
1674 Florence Crittenton
1068 Florence Martus
1565 Floyd B. Olson
1705 Floyd Bennett
2875 Floyd Gibbons
2802 Floyd W. Spencer
0475 Frances E. Willard
3091 Francis A. Retka
2174 Francis A. Wardwell
0781 Francis Amasa Walker
1195 Francis Asbury
2969 Francis B. Ogden
1825 Francis C. Harrington
2622 Francis D. Culkin
0299 Francis Drake
3000 Francis E. Siltz
2018 Francis E. Warren
1692 Francis G. Newland
3140 Francis J. Ogara
0026 Francis L. Lee
0257 Francis Lewis
2159 Francis M. Smith
0150 Francis Marion
2248 Francis N. Blanchet
0882 Francis Nash
0089 Francis Parkman
1230 Francis Preston Blair
2447 Francis S. Bartow
0016 Francis Scott Key
1789 Francis Vigo
2261 Francis W. Parker
1620 Francis W. Pettygrove
2713 Francis Wilson
1748 Francisco Coronado
2734 Francisco Morazan
2185 Francisco N. Qulnones
2160 Frank A. Munsey
1821 Frank A. Vanderlip
2791 Frank Adair Monroe
0601 Frank B. Kellogg
2529 Frank B. Linderman
2165 Frank C. Emerson
1713 Frank D. Phinney
2839 Frank E. Spencer
3141 Frank Flowers
3120 Frank Gilbreth
2288 Frank H. Dodd
2710 Frank H. Evers
2135 Frank J. Cuhel
2716 Frank J. Sprague
0672 Frank Joseph Irwin
2158 Frank Norris
2347 Frank O. Peterson
3057 Frank P. Reed
2874 Frank P. Walsh
2367 Frank Park
1843 Frank R. Stockton
1677 Frank Springer
1873 Frank Wiggins
2542 Franklin H. King
1663 Franklin K. Lane
0627 Franklin MacVeagh
0957 Franklin P. Mall
1793 Franz Boas
2752 Franz Sigel
2513 Fred C. Stebbins
3106 Fred F. Joyce
2517 Fred Herrling
2161 Frederic A. Eilers
2391 Frederic A. Kummer
1536 Frederic C. Howe
2961 Frederic E. Ives
0508 Frederic Remington
2503 Frederic W. Galbraith
3118 Frederick Austin
1850 Frederick Banting
1503 Frederick Bartholdi
2085 Frederick Billings
3076 Frederick Bouchard
2567 Frederick C. Hicks
0988 Frederick Douglass
2334 Frederick E. Williamson
2670 Frederick H. Baetjer
1942 Frederick H. Newell
0446 Frederick Jackson Turner
0851 Frederick L. Dau
2801 Frederick Von Steuben
2220 Frederick W. Taylor
2665 Frederick W. Wood
2860 Freeport Seam
1576 Fremont Older
0888 Furnifield M. Simmons

0425 G. H. Corliss
0656 Gabriel Duval
2571 Gabriel Franchere
3052 Galen L. Stone
0678 Gaspar De Portola
1642 General Vallejo
0646 George A. Custer
3097 George A. Lawson
2454 George A. Marr
2755 George A. Pope
0550 George Abernathy
2314 George Ade
0445 George B. Cortelyou
0322 George B. McClellan
2686 George B. McFarland
2720 George B. Porter
0428 George B. Seldon
0091 George Bancroft
1947 George Bellows
1568 George Berkeley
1937 George C. Childress
0708 George C. Yount
0029 George Calvert
0671 George Chaffey
0560 George Chamberlin
0793 George Cleeve
2272 George Clement Perkins
0182 George Clymer
2269 George Coggeshall
2684 George Crile
0536 George D. Prentice
2019 George Davidson
0876 George Davis
1202 George Dewey
1998 George Durant
0884 George E. Badger
2697 George E. Goodfeflow
0700 George E. Hale
2476 George E. Merrick
0841 George E. Pickett
2501 George E. Waldo
1104 George Eastman
3019 George Eldridge
0802 George F. Patten
1617 George Flavel
1510 George G. Crawford
0647 George G. Meade
0126 George Gale
1641 George Gershwin
1116 George Gipp
0511 George H. Dern
1619 George H. Flanders
2048 George H. Himes
1013 George H. Pendleton
2126 George H. Powell
0569 George H. Thomas
0544 George H. Williams
0342 George Handley
3025 George Hawley
1717 George Inness
2173 George K. Fitch
1866 George Kenny
1614 George L. Baker
2053 George L. Curry
3037 George L. Farley
2004 George L. Shoup
0130 George Leonard
2723 George Luks
0628 George M. Bibb
1012 George M. Cohan
1100 George M. Pullman
1803 George M. Shriver
2675 George M. Verity
0285 George Matthews
2768 George Middlemas
3100 George N. Drake
3049 George N. Seger
1939 George P. Garrison
2525 George P. McKay
1045 George Poindexter
2807 George Pomutz
2194 George Popham
2657 George R. Holmes
2395 George R. Poole
0259 George Read
0448 George Rogers Clark
0252 George Ross
0514 George S. Boutwell
2206 George S. Wasson
0945 George Sharswood
0939 George Shiras
2915 George Steers
2152 George Sterling
2208 George T. Angell
0254 George Taylor
0290 George Thacher
1785 George Uhler
0353 George Vancouver
1021 George Vickers
2155 George Von L. Myer
2793 George W. Alther
0623 George W. Campbell
1014 George W. Childs
0599 George W. Goethals
2013 George W. Julian
1734 George W. Kendall
1954 George W. Lively
0435 George W. McCrary
2388 George W. Norris
0998 George W. Woodward
0344 George Walton
0542 George Washington Carver
0918 George Weems
0423 George Westinghouse
1057 George Whitefield
0024 George Wythe
1122 Geronimo
0563 Gideon Welles
2273 Gilbert M. Hitchcock
1628 Gilbert Stuart
2850 Glamorgan Seam
1103 Glenn Curtiss
1627 Gouverneur Morris
0919 Grace Abbott
2568 Grace R. Hebard
1611 Graham Taylor
2573 Grant P. Marsh
1208 Grant Wood
2325 Granville S. Hall
1688 Granville Stuart
2823 Gratia
0522 Grenville M. Dodge
2512 Grover C. Hutcherson
2932 Gus W. Darnwell
1869 Gutzon Borglum

1718 H. G. Blasdel
2303 H. H. Raymond
2770 H. Weir Cook
2502 Harald Torsvik
3023 Hadley F. Brown
1596 Hall J. Kelley
2398 Halton R. Carey
1054 Hamlin Garland
0213 Hannibal Hamlin
1978 Hannis Taylor
2751 Hans Heg
2143 Harmon Judson
3044 Harold I. Pratt
2514 Harold A. Jordan
2980 Harold D. Whitehead
2399 Harold Dossett
3115 Harold H. Brown
1807 Harold L. Winslow
2396 Harold O. Wilson
1544 Harold T. Andrews
0790 Harriet Beecher Stowe
1528 Harriet Hosmer
2134 Harriet Monroe
3032 Harriet Tubman
2578 Harrington Emerson
0692 Harrison Gray Otis
0808 Harry A. Garfield
2896 Harry Kirby
2445 Harry L. Glucksman
0559 Harry Lane
2119 Harry Leon Wilson
2424 Harry Percy
2551 Hart Crane
1953 Harvey C. Miller
1210 Harvey Cushing
0552 Harvey W. Scott
1894 Harvey W. Wiley
1783 Hawkins Fudske
0987 Haym Salomon
2128 Heber M. Creel
2664 Hecla
2821 Hecuba
0673 Helen Hunt Jackson
2826 Helena Modjeska
1599 Henderson Luelling
2482 Hendrik Willem Van Loon
2268 Henry Adams
1966 Henry Austin
0938 Henry B. Brown
2510 Henry B. Plant
0862 Henry Bacon
0657 Henry Baldwin
0603 Henry Barnard
1556 Henry Bergh
2154 Henry C. Payne
1881 Henry C. Wallace
0003 Henry Clay
2927 Henry D. Lindsley
0191 Henry D. Thoreau
0579 Henry Dearborn
1581 Henry Dodge
1236 Henry Durant
2560 Henry E. Huntington
1621 Henry Failing
0574 Henry George
0950 Henry Gilbert Costin
1037 Henry Groves Connors
2170 Henry H. Blood
0528 Henry H. Richardson
0728 Henry H. Sibley
2489 Henry Hadley
0442 Henry J. Raymond
2278 Henry J. Waters
0812 Henry Jocelyn
0074 Henry Knox
2063 Henry L. Abott
0946 Henry L. Benning
1744 Henry L. Ellsworth
2552 Henry L. Gantt
2041 Henry L. Hoyt
2036 Henry L. Pittock
1784 Henry Lomb
0729 Henry M. Rice
2921 Henry M. Robert
1865 Henry M. Robinson
2228 Henry M. Stanley
2762 Henry M. Stephens
2144 Henry M. Teller
2788 Henry Meiggs
0228 Henry Middleton
2538 Henry Miller
2132 Henry R. Schoolcraft
1041 Henry S. Foote
2014 Henry S. Lane
2467 Henry S. Sanford
0037 Henry St. G. Tucker
2523 Henry T. Rainey
2692 Henry T. Scott
1716 Henry V. Alvarado
1763 Henry Van Dyke
0571 Henry Villard
1616 Henry W. Corbett
1501 Henry W. Grady
0185 Henry W. Longfellow
0642 Henry Ward Beecher
1201 Henry Watterson
2103 Henry Wells
2274 Henry White
0788 Henry Wilson
0140 Henry Wynkoop
2960 Herbert D. Croly
0334 Herman Melville
2832 Herrin Seam
2825 Hesperia
1780 Heywood Broun
1986 Hilary A. Herbert
0094 Hinton R. Helper
1726 Hiram Bingham
0468 Hiram S. Maxim
1114 Hobart Baker
1061 Hoke Smith
1767 Holland Thompson
0538 Homer Lea
2682 Hooper Island
0062 Horace Binney
1795 Horace Bushnell
0936 Horace Gray
0641 Horace Greeley
1924 Horace H. Harvey
1500 Horace H. Lurton
0634 Horace Mann
1890 Horace See
2519 Horace V. White
1702 Horace Wells
0906 Horace Williams
2563 Horatio Allen
0110 Houston Volunteers
0955 Howard A. Kelly
1512 Howard E. Coffin
2302 Howard Gray
2954 Howard L. Gibson
0705 Howard Stansbury
1854 Howard T. Ricketts
0533 Howell Cobb
1498 Howell E. Jackson
0669 Hubert Howe Bancroft
2480 Hugh J. Kilpatrick
1840 Hugh L. Kerwin
1833 Hugh M. Smith
0534 Hugh McCulloch
0685 Hugh S. Legare
0157 Hugh Williamson
1964 Hugh Young
1987 Hutchinson I. Cone

2976 I. B. Perrine
2565 I. N. Van Nuys
2566 Ida M. Tarbell
2951 Ida Straus
1648 Ignace Paderewski
2005 Ignatius Donnelly
2859 Imboden Seam
1856 Ina Coolbirth
1584 Increase A. Lapham
3088 Indian Island
3068 Iolanda
2387 Ira Nelson Morris
0321 Irvin MacDowell
2491 Irvin S. Cobb
2957 Irving Babbitt
1566 Irving M. Scott
2034 Irving W. Pratt
1743 Irwin Russell
1106 Isaac Babbitt
0084 Isaac Coles
2810 Isaac Delgado
2575 Isaac I. Stevens
2506 Isaac M. Singer
2509 Isaac Mayer Wise
2535 Isaac McCoy
2434 Isaac S. Hopkins
0778 Isaac Sharpless
1518 Isaac Shelby
2431 Isaac Van Zandt
1820 Israel J. Merritt
0012 Israel Putman
1839 Israel Wheelen

2709 J. C. Osgood
1931 J. C. W. Beckham
2049 J. D. Ross
2964 J. D. Yeager
0114 J. E. B. Stuart
2239 J. Frank Cooper
1835 J. Fred Essary
2309 J. H. Drummond
0480 J. H. Kinkaid
3126 J. Howland Gardner
0001 J. L. M. Curry
2290 J. Maurice Thompson
1938 J. Pincknew Henderson
2814 J. Rufino Barrios
1963 J. S. Cullinan
2775 J. S. Hutchinson
0510 J. Sterling Morton
2257 J. Warren Keifer
1808 J. Whitridge Williams
2195 J. Willard Gibbs
1237 Jack London
2231 Jack Singer
2949 Jacob A. Westervelt
2979 Jacob Chandler Harper
0794 Jacob H. Gallinger
1823 Jacob H. Schiff
2912 Jacob Perkins
1685 Jacob Riis
1665 Jacob S. Mansfeld
2863 Jacob Sloat Fassett
1738 Jacob Thompson
0737 Jacques Cartier
0473 Jacques Laramie
2816 Jagger Seam
1552 James A. Bayard
3098 James A. Butts
2783 James A. Drain
1016 James A. Farrell
2556 James A. Wilder
2450 James B. Aswell
0848 James B. Bonham
2362 James B. Duke
0592 James B. Eads
0418 James B. Francis
0467 James B. Hickok
0650 James B. McPherson
2569 James B. Miller
0226 James B. Richardson
0580 James B. Stephens
0732 James B. Weaver
0831 James Barbour
2397 James Bennett Moore
1771 James Blair
0811 James Bowdoin
0271 James Bowie
0686 James Buchanan
1831 James C. Cameron
0915 James Caldwell
1826 James Carroll
1886 James Cook
2092 James D. Doty
2156 James D. Phelan
2631 James D. Trask
1460 James De Wolf
2745 James Devereux
0568 James Duncan
0852 James E. Haviland
1042 James E. Howard
2831 James Eagan Layne
3138 James F. Harrell
0198 James Fenimore Cooper
1694 James Fergus
0092 James Ford Rhodes
0719 James G. Birney
0333 James G. Blaine
2183 James G. Maguire
3137 James G. Squires
0643 James Gordon Bennett
0532 James Guthrie
2265 James H. Breasted
1063 James H. Couper
2516 James H. Courts
2298 James H. Kimball
2259 James H. Lane
1664 James H. McClintock
2889 James H. Price
1862 James H. Robinson
1559 James Harlan
1602 James Harrod
0740 James Hoban
1996 James I. McKay
0867 James Iredell
0530 James Ives
1112 James J. Corbett
0494 James J. Hill
2104 James J. O. Kelly
0874 James J. Pettigrew
0343 James Jackson
2050 James K. Kelly
2477 James K. Paulding
0161 James K. Polk
2628 James Kerney
2179 James King
2982 James Kyron Walker
2468 James L. Ackerson
2075 James L. Breck
1704 James Lick
0112 James Longstreet
2071 James M. Clements
1764 James M. Gillis
0727 James M. Goodhue
0836 James M. Porter
1489 James M. Wayne
0274 James Madison
2198 James Manning
0996 James McCosh
1030 James McHenry
0576 James McNeill Whistler
0080 James Monroe
0891 James Moore
0341 James Oglethorpe
2015 James Oliver
2711 James Oliver Curwood
0241 James Otis
0979 James R. Randall
0703 James Robertson
2702 James Rolph
1730 James Rowan
2986 James Roy Wells
0329 James Rumsey
0190 James Russell Lowell
0846 James S. Hogg
2081 James S. Lawson
0287 James Schureman
1213 James Screven
1668 James Shields
0253 James Smith
0886 James Sprunt
3041 James Sullivan
2872 James Swan
1775 James T. Earle
3061 James T. Fields
0166 James Turner
2366 James W. Cannon
0949 James W. Denver
0849 James W. Fannin
1502 James W. Grady
1613 James W. Grimes
2546 James W. Johnson
0670 James W. Marshall
0553 James W. Nesmith
1571 James W. Nye
2338 James W. Wheeler
0193 James Whitcomb Riley
0183 James Wilson
2038 James Withycombe
0929 James Woodrow
0044 James Gunn
2263 Jan Pieterszoon Coen
0465 Jane A. Delano
0635 Jane Addams
2522 Jane G. Swisshelm
0847 Jane Long
1007 Janet Lord Roper
0060 Jared Ingersoll
0546 Jason Lee
2484 Jasper F. Cropsey
2694 Jay Cooke
1920 Jean Baptiste Lemoyne
2096 Jean Nicolet
2717 Jean P. Chouteau
2300 Jean Ribaut
1650 Jedediah S. Smith
0008 Jefferson Davis
2848 Jellico Seam
2190 Jeremiah Chaplin
1724 Jeremiah M. Daily
2145 Jeremiah M. Rusk
0806 Jeremiah O'Brien
0690 Jeremiah S. Black
0155 Jeremiah Van Rensselaer
0270 Jeremiah Wadsworth
1060 Jerome K. Jones
2497 Jerry S. Foley
0549 Jesse Applegate
1945 Jesse Billingsley
2671 Jesse Cottrell
1798 Jesse Deforest
3122 Jesse H. Metcalf
2846 Jewell Seam
0610 Jim Bridger
0484 Joaquin Miller
1508 Joe C. S. Blackburn
2241 Joe Fellows
2280 Joe Harris
0010 Joel Chandler Harris
2025 Joel Palmer
0833 Joel R. Poinsett
2375 Johan Printz
1496 John A. Campbell
0774 John A. Dix
1005 John A. Donald
2027 John A. Johnson
0451 John A. Logan
0807 John A. Poor
1046 John A. Quitman
0434 John A. Rawlins
0293 John A. Sutter
2441 John A. Treutlen
0242 John Adams
1659 John Alden
0829 John Armstrong
0082 John B. Ashe
0431 John B. Floyd
1504 John B. Gordon
2939 John B. Hamilton
0115 John B. Hood
2530 John B. Kendrick
1509 John B. Lennon
2527 John Ball
0962 John Banvard
0174 John Barry
1535 John Barton Payne
0424 John Bartram
1521 John Bascom
0834 John Bell
0683 John Bidwell
0497 John Blair
2002 John Branch
0609 John Burke
1652 John Burroughs
0554 John C. Ainsworth
0350 John C. Breckinridge
0219 John C. Calhoun
0064 John C. Fremont
2837 John C. Preston
0835 John C. Spencer
1749 John Cabot
1557 John Carroll
0056 John Carter Rose
0207 John Carver
1494 John Catron
0215 John Chandler
3026 John Chester Kendall
1458 John Clarke
2137 John Colter
1698 John Constantine
0152 John Cropper
1977 John D. Morehead
0201 John Davenport
2539 John Davey
0586 John Deere
0232 John Dichyinson
2561 John Dockweiler
0697 John Drake Sloat
0225 John Drayton
2549 John Drew
0984 John E. Schmeltzer
2438 John E. Sweet
1070 John E. Ward
1588 John E. Wilkie
1220 John Einig
1712 John Evans
0421 John F. Appleby
2088 John F. Myers
2758 John F. Shafroth
2031 John F. Steffen
0827 John Fairfield
0090 John Fiske
0328 John Fitch
2095 John G. Brady
0519 John G. Carlisle
0525 John G. Nicolay
2107 John G. North
2908 John G. Tod
0188 John G. Whittier
0951 John Gallup
2916 John Gibbons
1880 John Goode
1194 John Gorrie
1972 John Grier Hibben
0052 John H. B. Latrobe
1618 John H. Couch
0832 John H. Eaton
2385 John H. Hammond
1776 John H. Hatton
1895 John H. Marion
2496 John H. Mclntosh
2614 John H. Murphy
2547 John H. Quick
1943 John H. Reagan
1580 John H. Rosseter
2746 John H. Thomas
0176 John Hancock
2677 John Hanson
0184 John Hart
0239 John Harvard
0878 John Harvey
0283 John Hathorn
1525 John Hay
0045 John Henry
0216 John Holmes
2742 John Hope
0490 John Howard Payne
0958 John Howland
2920 John Ireland
2270 John Isaacson
0960 John J. Able
1196 John J. Crittenden
1686 John J. Ingalls
1790 John J. McGraw
1911 John J. Roebling
2059 John Jacob Astor
0420 John James Audubon
0178 John Jay
2594 John L. Elliott
2342 John L. McCarley
0986 John L. Motley
2079 John l. Nolan
2287 John L. Stoddard
1121 John L. Sullivan
1822 John LaFarge
0077 John Langdon
0108 John Laurance
1985 John Lawson
1573 John Lind
2090 John M. Bozeman
1550 John M. Brooke
0687 John M. Clayton
1497 John M. Harlan
0453 John M. Palmer
2456 John M. Parker
0433 John M. Schofield
0991 John M. T. Finney completed as Christian Michelsen
0002 John Marshall
2991 John Martin Miller
0857 John Mary Odin
0815 John Mason
1733 John McDonogh
1495 John McKinley
0499 John McLean
0548 John McLoughlin
1990 John Merrick
0346 John Milledge
2515 John Miller
2021 John Minto
0311 John Mitchell
0978 John Morgan
0258 John Morton
1226 John Muir
0770 John Murray Forbes
1997 John N. Maffitt
0819 John N. Robins
1970 John Owne
1896 John P. Altgeld
2045 John P. Gaines
2877 John P. Harris
0589 John P. Holland
1975 John P. Mitchell
0054 John P. Poe
0286 John Page
0067 John Paul Jones
0218 John Penn
1200 John Philip Sousa
2311 John R. McQuigg
0466 John R. Park
0019 John Randolph
2099 John Reed
2494 John Ringling
2267 John Roach
3113 John Robert Gordon
1589 John Ross
1794 John Russell Pope
0495 John Rutledge
1707 John S. Bassett
1654 John S. Casement
0604 John S. Copley
1207 John S. Mosby
0730 John S. Pillsbury
1582 John S. Sargent
0652 John Sedwick
0063 John Sergeant
0236 John Sevier
1047 John Sharp Williams
2131 John Sherman
1737 John Stagg
0289 John Steele
0330 John Stevens
1011 John Stevenson
2533 John Straub
0214 John Sulhvan
2171 John Swett
1824 John T. Clark
1758 John T. Holt
1575 John T. McMillan
2225 John Tripton
0337 John Trumbull
0138 John Vining
0312 John W. Brown
2730 John W. Burgess
1597 John W. Cullen
2536 John W. Davis
2166 John W. Foster
1768 John W. Garrett
2421 John W. Gates
1548 John W. Griffiths
2141 John W. Hoyt
1570 John W. Mackay
2120 John W. Meldrum
1022 John W. Powell
2540 John W. Searles
2581 John W. Troy
0617 John W. Weeks
0305 John Walker
1010 John Wanamaker
1218 John White
1590 John Whiteaker
0202 John Winthrop
0251 John Wise
0031 John Witherspoon
0973 John Woolman
0881 John Wright Stanly
2965 Johnny Appleseed
0947 Johns Hopkins
0237 Jonathan Edwards
0308 Jonathan Elmer
0128 Jonathan Grout
0561 Jonathan Harrington
2012 Jonathan Jennings
1558 Jonathan P. Dolliver
0136 Jonathan Sturges
0137 Jonathan Trumbull
0897 Jonathan Worth
2876 Jones Lie
0113 Joseph E. Johnston
0907 Jose Bonifacio
2127 Jose J. Acosta
2688 Jose Pedro Varela
1812 Jose Artigas
2707 Jose C. Barbosa
2429 Jose G. Benitez
2772 Jose M. Morelos
1017 Jose Marti
1951 Jose Navarro
1647 Jose Sepulveda
1967 Joseph A. Brown
1708 Joseph A. Holmes
0864 Joseph Alston
3029 Joseph-Augustin Chevalier
2655 Joseph B. Eastman
2020 Joseph C. Avery
3035 Joseph C. Lincoln
3103 Joseph Carrigan
1058 Joseph E. Brown
2133 Joseph E. Wing
3143 Joseph F. Connolly
1875 Joseph Francis
0447 Joseph G. Cannon
0594 Joseph Gale
1917 Joseph Goldberger
0693 Joseph H. Hollister
1961 Joseph H. Kibbey
1065 Joseph H. Martin
0994 Joseph H. Nicholson
1064 Joseph Habersham
1751 Joseph Henry
0217 Joseph Hewes
0432 Joseph Holt
0323 Joseph Hooker
3027 Joseph I. Kemp
2756 Joseph J. Kinyoun
0607 Joseph Jefferson
1723 Joseph K. Toole
0596 Joseph L. Meek
0551 Joseph Lane
1983 Joseph Leconte
3078 Joseph Lee
0976 Joseph Leidy
2250 Joseph M. Carey
1523 Joseph M. Medill
1515 Joseph M. TerrelI
0086 Joseph McKenna
2881 Joseph Murgas
3043 Joseph N. Dinand
1050 Joseph N. Nicollet
0581 Joseph N. Teal
0971 Joseph P. Bradley
1675 Joseph Priestley
0644 Joseph Pulitzer
1491 Joseph R. Lamar
1870 Joseph Reynolds
0488 Joseph Rodman Drake
1567 Joseph S. Emery
2883 Joseph S. McDonagh
2061 Joseph Simon
1119 Joseph Smith
3028 Joseph Squires
0304 Joseph Stanton
0655 Joseph Story
0119 Joseph T. Robinson
2074 Joseph W. Folk
0782 Joseph Warren
2042 Joseph Watt
2822 Joseph Weydemeyer
0013 Joseph Wheeler
2296 Josephine Shaw Lowell
1952 Joshua A. Leach
1841 Joshua B. Lippincott
1696 Joshua Hendy
0805 Joshua L. Chamberlain
0134 Joshua Senney
3082 Joshua Slocum
1760 Joshua Thomas
1004 Joshua W. Alexander
0527 Josiah B. Grinnell
0205 Josiah Bartlett
2887 Josiah Cohen
1637 Josiah D. Whitney
1662 Josiah Earl
1884 Josiah G. Holland
1651 Josiah Nelson Cushing
0132 Josiah Parker
0799 Josiah Quincy
0714 Josiah Royce
0541 Josiah Sneliing
2884 Josiah Tattnell
1796 Joyce Kilmer
1657 Juan Bautisto de Anza
0291 Juan Cabrillo
1747 Juan de Fuca
1634 Juan Flaco Brown
2934 Juan N. Seguin
2757 Juan Pablo Duarte
0839 Jubal A. Early
0007 Judah P. Benjamin
1927 Judah Touro
2718 Julia L. Dumont
3083 Julia P. Shaw
0335 Julia Ward Howe
2234 Julian W. Mack
0523 Julien Dubuque
1048 Julien Poydras
2446 Juliette Low
2923 Julius Olsen
1533 Julius Rosenwald
2505 Junius Smith
0292 Junlpero Serra
0461 Justin S. Morrill
2698 Justo Arosemena

2175 Kate Douglas Wiggin
2813 Katharine B. Sherwood
2911 Katherine L. Bates
2914 Keith Palmer
2182 Keith Vawter
1973 Kemp P. Battle
1606 Kenneth A. J. MacKenzie
3092 Kent Island
3065 Kenyon L. Butterfield
2680 Kermit Roosevelt
0512 Key Pittman
2819 King Hathaway
0681 King S. Woolsey
0243 Kit Carson
0731 Knute Nelson
1111 Knute Rockne
2459 Kochab
2948 Kyle V. Johnson

1958 L. H. McNelly
1740 Lafcadio Hearn
0273 Lambart Cadwalader
1051 Langdon Cheves
2836 Lasalle Seam
2382 Laura Bridgman
2943 Laura Drake Gill
1752 Laura Keene
2845 Laurence J. Gallagher
1988 Lawrence D. Tyson
2125 Lawrence Gianella
2616 Lawrence J. Brengle
3102 Lawrence T. Sullivan
0746 Lawton B. Evans
2301 LeBaron Russell Briggs
1981 Lee S. Overman
1930 Leif Ericson
3114 Leif M. Olson
2999 Lektor Garbo planned name Alfred L. Baxlay
0298 Leland Stanford
1829 Leo J. Duster
1934 Leon Godchaux
3090 Leon S. Merrill
2995 Leonardo L. Romero
1564 Leonidas Merritt
0144 Leonidas Polk
1915 Leopold Damrosch
0444 Leslie M. Shaw
0969 Levi Woodbury
0485 Lew Wallace
0689 Lewis Cass
1806 Lewis Emery_Jr.
2532 Lewis L. Dyche
0250 Lewis Morris
2595 Leyte
3071 Liguria
3010 Lillian Nordica
2722 Lillian Wald
0668 Lincoln Steffens
0616 Lindley M. Garrison
2448 Linn Boyd
2842 Linton Seam
1765 Lionel Copley
2989 Lloyd S. Carlson
3060 Loammi Baldwin
2953 Lorado Taft
0928 Lord Delaware
3128 Lorenzo C. McCarthy
0854 Lorenzo DeZavala
2226 Lorrin A. Thurston
3042 Lot M. Morill
1594 Lot Whitcomb
0210 Lou Gehrig
1074 Louis A. Godey
2149 Louis A. Sengteller
1624 Louis Agassiz
2508 Louis Bamberger
1846 Louis C. Tiffany
0943 Louis D. Brandeis
0540 Louis Hennepin
0449 Louis Joliet
1838 Louis Kossuth
1019 Louis Marshall
0684 Louis McLane
2123 Louis Pasteur
2779 Louis Sloss
2781 Louis Sullivan
2771 Louis Weule
0992 Louisa M. Alcott
1959 Lucien B. Maxwell
2782 Lucien Labaudt
2521 Lucius Fairchild
1029 Lucius Q. C. Lamar
1607 Lucretia Mott
0474 Lucy Stone
0679 Luis Arguollo
2374 Lunsford Richardson
1099 Luther Burbank
0049 Luther Martin
1709 Luther S. Kelly
0720 Lydia M. Child
1461 Lyman Abbott
1229 Lyman Beecher
0345 Lyman Hall
0520 Lyman J. Gage
1658 Lyman Stewart
1799 Lyon G. Tyler

2390 M. E. Comerford
1587 M. H. De Young
0615 M. M. Guhin
2305 M. Michael Edelstein
2893 Mack Bruton Bryan
0942 Mahlon Pitney
0645 Malcolm M. Stewart
2094 Manasseh Culter
1697 Marcus Daly
3046 Marcus H. Tracy
0547 Marcus Whitman
1787 Margaret Brent
0723 Margaret Fuller
0722 Maria Mitchell
1562 Maria Sanford
1778 Marie M. Meloney
1679 Marina Raskova
0665 Marion McKinley Bovard
2789 Mariscal Sucre
3002 Mark A. Davis completed as Psara
0573 Mark Hanna
1231 Mark Hopkins
1639 Mark Keppel
0196 Mark Twain
0866 Marshall Elliott
2873 Martha Berry
1845 Martha C. Thomas
2827 Martin Behrman
2244 Martin Johnson
1851 Martin Van Buren
2292 Mary A. Livermore
1735 Mary Ashley Towsend
0858 Mary Austin
1534 Mary Ball
2116 Mary Bickerdyke
1553 Mary Cassatt
2349 Mary Cullom Kimbro
2577 Mary E. Kinney
0787 Mary Lyon
2138 Mary M. Dodge
1725 Mary Patten
2654 Mary Pickersgill
2289 Mary Walker
2192 Mary Wilkins Freeman
1928 Mason L. Weems
1766 Mathew Brush
0887 Matt W. Ransom
1117 Matthew B. Brady
1965 Matthew J. O'Brien
0535 Matthew Lyon
0097 Matthew Maury
0545 Matthew P. Deady
3075 Matthew Sneehan
0898 Matthew T. Goldsboro
0262 Matthew Thornton
0318 Mayo Brothers
2281 Mello Franco
1849 Meloil Dewey
2470 Melucta
1715 Melville E. Stone
3119 Melville Jacoby
0504 Melville W. Fuller
2201 Mercy Warren
0170 Meriwether Lewis
2847 Merrimac Seam
2541 Meyer Lissner
2585 Meyer London
3031 Miaoulis
3058 Michael Anagnos
2118 Michael C. Kerr
2101 Michael Casey
2495 Michael Dekovats
2958 Michael J. Owens
0099 Michael J. Stone
2335 Michael James Monohan
3050 Michael Moran
1554 Michael Pupin
2082 Midwest Farmer
1636 Miguel Hidalgo
2679 Milan R. Stefanik
2129 Millen Griffith
2798 Milton B. Medary
2803 Milton H. Smith
2882 Milton J. Foreman
2861 Mingo Seam
1547 Minnie M. Fiske
2928 Minor C. Keith
0267 Mirabeau B. Lamar
2885 Moina Michael
0935 Molly Pitcher
2634 Mona Island
2000 Montfort Stokes
2741 Morgan Robertson
2499 Morris C. Feinstone
2419 Morris Hillquit
2910 Morris Sheppard
2586 Morris Sigman
0503 Morrison R. Waite
1595 Morton M. McCarver
1893 Morton Prince
0843 Moses Austin
1462 Moses Brown
1750 Moses Cleaveland
2731 Moses G. Farmer
0492 Moses Rogers
2102 Murat Halstead
2381 Murray M. Blum
1700 Myron T. Herrick

A Look at Liberty Ships Liberty ships formed the backbone of a supply line that enabled the Allies to wage total war against the Axis Powers during World War II. In what has been called "the most stupendous building program the world will probably ever see", some 2,700 Liberty ships — making up nearly three-quarters of the 40 million dead-weight tons of shipbuilding in the United States during the war — were built at an average cost of US$1.6 million each in 18 shipyards.

Baltimore's Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyard was the largest and most efficient of its kind.

Upon seeing the design for the Liberty ship, which was based on a British ship first built in 1879, President Roosevelt named her "the ugly duckling."

Ten to twelve months were required in 1917-18 to build an oceangoing ship. Liberty ships, though a third larger, were built in 1943 in as little as 16 days in regular production in one of the most efficient yards. America's wartime shipbuilding capacity for oceangoing vessels is 2,000 or more annually, provided manpower and materials are available.

A Liberty ship could carry an amount of cargo equal to four trains of 75 cars each.

A shipyard with 50 ways built 69 riveted ships aggregating 517,000 deadweight tons in 1919. In 1943 a 12- way Maritime Commission yard turned out 205 welded ships totaling 2,150,000 tons.

United States shipyards, responding to a Presidential directive to build 16 million deadweight tons of shipping in 1943, exceeded the goal by 20 percent, building a total of 19.2 million tons. Only 1.1 million tons were built in 1941, and 8.0 million in 1942.

The first Liberty ship, the Patrick Henry, was launched on September 27, 1941, at Baltimore, MD. The sponsor was Mrs. Henry A. Wallace, wife of the then Vice-President. She was built to a standardized, mass-produced design. The 250,000 parts of a Liberty were prefabricated all over the country, and the 250-ton sections, complete with portholes and mirrors, were miraculously welded together in as little as four and a half days once production hit its stride.

The Liberty (officially an EC2) was 441 feet long and 56 feet wide. Her three-cylinder, reciprocating steam engine, fed by two oil-burning boilers, produced 2,500 hp and a speed of 11 knots. Her five holds could carry over 9,000 tons of cargo, plus airplanes, tanks, and locomotives lashed to its deck. A Liberty could carry 2,840 jeeps, 440 tanks, or 230 million rounds of rifle ammunition.

Libertys carried a crew of about 44 and 12 to 25 Naval Armed Guards. Some were armed with the following armament: 4-inch stern gun, two 37-mm bow guns, four .50-caliber machine guns, and/or two .30-caliber machine guns.

Libertys sailed with no name painted on their bows so as to give the enemy no hint as to their mission or cargo.

About 200 Libertys were lost to torpedoes, mines, explosions, kamikazes, etc. during WW II.

The War Shipping Administration was created by Executive Order in February, 1942. It had complete control over United States ocean shipping for the duration of the war.

The Liberty ship Robert E. Peary was built in a West Coast shipyard in the world's record time of one week flat.

Services of more than 40 skilled trades were required to build a Liberty ship.

Every Liberty ship had its own distillation system to make sea water drinkable.

Forty-one percent of all of the ocean-going shipbuilding in United States merchant shipyards since 1913 was done in the single year of 1943, when 1,896 vessels were built.

The Maritime Commission in 1937 embarked on a ten-year program to build 500 cargo ships. The cargo ships built between that time and March 1, 1945 included more than 2,500 Liberty ships, about 450 C-type cargo vessels, 550 oceangoing tankers, 175 Victory cargo ships, and a variety of military, coastal, and smaller craft.

Trained personnel of the American Merchant Marine increased from about 55,000 on December 7, 1941 to 215,000 in March 1945.

The Liberty ship construction program of the Maritime Commission, after producing more than 2,500 ships in 3.5 years, ended in 1945.

Female workers constituted 13 per cent of the 700,000 merchant shipyard employees in 1943, and 18 per cent of the 585,000 total in October 1944.

Despite the tremendous wartime merchant shipping losses suffered by the United Nations, they were replaced in the aggregate before the end of 1943 by production in American shipyards.

The Nation's wartime merchant shipbuilding capacity was increased considerably by building ocean vessels on the Great Lakes. The only way of getting these large vessels to salt water was via the Chicago drainage canal and Illinois-Mississippi river system to New Orleans. Superstructures were removed to get under Chicago bridges, and steel pontoons were attached to the sterns for the river trip, to lift them out of shallow water.

Some yards building Liberty ships delivered the 441-foot vessels in 16 days in regular production.

The first Liberty ship required 244 days to build. By the end of 1945, the average building time for all Liberty shipyards was under 40 days.

The first Liberty ship was named after Patrick Henry. The last 100 were named for merchant seamen who died in wartime service.

One hundred and fourteen Liberty ships carried the names of women eighteen Liberty ships were named for African-American individuals.

There are 121,000 board feet of lumber in a Liberty ship and 72,000 square feet of plywood.

A Liberty could carry 440 light tanks, or 2,840 Jeeps, to battle fronts. Improved loading methods and speedup of turn-around added the equivalent of about 125 ships to the East Coast merchant fleet in each of the three months before D-Day in France.

In the last half of 1942, construction of dry cargo ship tonnage in United States shipyards was three times that lost by sinkings. In the first half of 1943, construction outstripped sinkings 5 to 1 and in the last half of the year the ratio was 10 to 1.

In 1939, as a result of a huge shipbuilding program which began with the formation of the United States Maritime Commission under the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, my brother got a job with the Chickasaw shipyard.

With war clouds gathering fast on the horizon, rebuilding the American merchant marine fleet became a priority, even before Pearl Harbor. When the Japanese plunged this country into war, it became a global war involving fighting the Japanese in the Pacific, and the Germans and Italians in Europe. Many cargo ships were needed fast to carry food, war materials, and other items to the fighting fronts. New shipyards had to be built and much unskilled labor had to be recruited quickly and trained, to turn out the many freight carrying vessels that became a necessity.

It was in this fashion that the famous Liberty ships were born.

There were over sixteen hundred Liberty ships built by eighteen shipbuilders and twenty engine makers, under eighteen U.S. Navy classifications. These classifications included cargo, troop-carrying, hospital, general stores, technical and scientific research, aircraft repair and supply, aircraft ferry, radar station ship, miscellaneous auxiliary ships, experimental minesweepers, radar picket ships, and distilling ships.

During World War I, 2,500 merchant ships were built, constructed of wood and steel, and these totaled 6.5 million dead weigh tons under World War I conditions. But a short while later, the shipbuilding industry in America deteriorated.

To catch up with demand and foreign competition, new conditions were outlined to meet the challenges that came as a result of World War II.

An attempt was made to standardize the shipbuilding programs, producing three standard types of ships. Trying to satisfy the various demands of ship owners and operators was a real challenge. Some owners demanded a tall circular funnel while others wanted a squat pear-shape structure.

Until 1940, Great Britain was carrying the load of supplying cargo ships for its own survival. At the same time German submarines were sinking cargo ships faster that the British could produce them.

To overcome the submarine threat and to catch up with adequate tonnage, the British shipbuilding industry brought their problems and plans to America for our country to become involved in the mass production of ships.

In the initial stages of America's shipbuilding program, the two shipbuilding firms of Todd Shipyards and Henry J. Kaiser's West coast operations played a leading role.

Producing quantity replaced building ships featuring quality. The slogan of the industry was," to build the ships by the mile and chop them off by the yard".

When the British shipbuilding experts first arrived in America, the goal was to produce two thirty-ship "Ocean" contracts and this was the initial project involving Todd and Kaiser. The first of these "Ocean" vessels, named the "Ocean Vanguard" was launched on October 15, 1941.

The Liberty ship was an emergency product intended for war use and was expendable. Built in our country's shipyards, the Liberty ships were of the same type as the "Oceans". They stemmed from the British design.

In 1941, Congress authorized nine new emergency shipyards, two of which built the British order of sixty "Ocean" vessels, plus authorizing the construction of two hundred new vessels. In April 1941, Congress authorized transfers of merchant and naval vessels to Britain under a "lease-lend" program initiated by President Franklin Roosevelt.

By the end of the war, Congress had expanded the shipbuilding programs several times. There were many changes made to the Liberty ships from the original British protypes. In the interest of fast construction, modifications were made to facilitate welding and to avoid the need for furnaced plates by giving a slight curvature to the whole ship. Some changes which seemed to be of lesser importance in the beginning, turned out to be very important. For example, the unstrengthened square hatch corners and the sheerstrake cut in the way of the accommodation ladder.

Rearranging the superstructure to accommodate the whole crew in a single midship house was a major hull alteration. It also economized on piping, heating and outfitting.

Since Patrick Henry coined the expression, "Give me liberty or give me death," the ship "Patrick Henry" was the first of the many Liberties that slid down the waves. It was launched on Sept. 27, 1941.

Of the shipbuilding companies, J.A. Jones Construction Company had two shipyards: one in Brunswick, Ga., and one in Panama City, Fl. The Panama City yard operated under the name of Wainwright Yard. The Maritime Commission persuaded Jones to first install a shipyard in Panama City. Eventually, Brunswick also got a shipyard. Before Wainwright Shipyard was built, Panama City had a population of 20,000.

Three years later the population had jumped to 60,000. The shipyard firm, in addition to building Liberty ships, also built needed housing, restaurants, and other facilities to attract workers. It also delivered milk to the community and supplied them with tools, trucks, and furniture on credit. If there were any losses involved, these were offsetted against profits from the company's other activities.

In October 1943, Wainwright Shipyard stopped making Liberty ships temporarily, switching to making a special type of ship carrying army tanks. Later it also produced a transport for carrying boxed aircraft.

Wainwright Shipyard produced 66 Liberty vessels, costing 2,020,000 dollars each, plus 8 vessels for army tank transporting and 28 vessels for transporting boxed aircraft.

There were many ships lost during the war, particularly from sinkings by submarines. Britain lost 1,190 ships. Other allies and neutral countries lost 980 vessels, while the enemy lost 1,000 ships altogether.

When World War II ended, more than forty million tons of new shipping was owned by the USA. Our country was again a leading maritime nation. During the war, 130 shipping companies operated America's merchant fleet as agents of the government. Now, many of these companies wanted to continue in business for their own commercial investment purposes.

There were also many foreign companies wanting to acquire some of America's wartime merchant fleet. Greek tycoon Aristotle Onassis was one of these, and there was a lot of controversy over his negotiations on the subject.

Many of the American shipyards now had to reverse gears and go into dismantling and scrapping the Liberty ships. The wartime Liberty ships speed averaged 11 knots per hour, which was considered slow in comparison to the post-war need for ships traveling 15 knots per hour.

Captain (Master)

First Mate Chief Engineer Chief Steward
Second Mate First Assistant Engineer Chief Cook
Third Mate Second Assistant Engineer Second Cook
Deck maintenance man Third Assistant Engineer Baker
Boatswain (Bos'n) Deck Enginee r Messman (6)
Carpenter Oiler (3) Galleyman
Able seaman (6) Fireman/watertender (3)
Ordinary seaman (3) Wiper (2)
Armed Guard
Purser-Pharmacist's Mate
Lieutenant, JG or Ensign Radio operator ("Sparks")
Gunners, radio operators, and signalman (12 to 27)

Black gang - the engine room crew, the name originating on coal burning ships.
Bos'n - deck supervisor, unlicensed.
Messman - waiter and dishwasher.
Ordinary seaman - the lowest grade for the deck department.
Purser-Pharmacist's mate - bookkeeper and medic.
Wiper - a general handyman in the engine room.


The Shipyards There were eighteen shipyards located along the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coasts, as well as the Great Lakes, the latter region producing vessels limited in their size by facilities for getting then to sea (the St. Lawrence Seaway had not yet opened).

Alabama DryDock and Shipbuilding Mobile, AL
Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyard Baltimore, MD
California Shipbuilding Corp. Los Angeles, CA
Delta Shipbuilding Corp. New Orleans, LA
J A Jones Brunswick, GA
J A Jones Panama City, FL
Kaiser Company Vancouver, WA
Marinship Sausalito, CA
New England Shipbuilding East Yard Portland, MA
New England Shipbuilding West Yard Portland, MA
North Carolina Shipbuilding Wilmington, NC
Oregon Shipbuilding Portland, OR
Permanente Metals Corp No 1 Yard Richmond, CA
Permanente Metals Corp No 2 Yard Richmond, CA
St Johns River Shipbuilding Jacksonville, FL
Southeastern Shipbuilding Savannah, GA
Todd Houston Shipbuilding Houston, TX
Walsh-Kaiser Company Providence, RI

In the early days of the program it was evident that the sheer quantity of ships was essential and the solution was "ship built by mile and chopped off by the yard." New shipyards were created by a syndicate formed by Todd Shipyards Inc., and the Henry J. Kaiser group.

Once the production lines got under way, the time taken to build a Liberty at Fairfield dropped to as little as 28 days. On the average, it took 592,000 man-hours to build a Liberty Ship. The construction of one Liberty ship required 3,425 tons of hull steel, 2,725 tons of plate, and 700 tons of shapes, which included 50,000 castings.

The Kaiser shipyard in Oakland, California, built the from keel laying to launching, in 4 days, 15 hours, and 30 minutes. The PEARY was then outfitted, painted, taken on sea trials, the crew was trained, and the vessel fully loaded with 10,000 tons of cargo. The PEARY sailed seven days after the keel was laid.

Liberty Ship Photo Gallery
[ Click selected images to view a larger version hold the mouse over a photo for the caption ]

The SS Lee S. Overman sunk at Le Havre.

SS James Fenimore Cooper, 1945, at anchor off Saipan.

The SS William M. Eastland.

The SS John Hart on a reef for five days en route to Sydney, Australia.

The SS Isaac Sharpless in Augusta, Sicily, June 1944.

Members of a "CHECKERBOARD"crew that brought a Liberty Ship from the U.S. to England, with their mascot , "Booker" (left to right, R. C. Woods, A. M. Mulzac, W. B. Shepard, and S. O'Neil).

After a course at the Cooks and Bakers School at the U.S. Maritime Training Base, Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn, NY, Clifford R. Jenkins, Jr. is now baking for merchant seamen aboard the SS Patrick Henry, first Liberty Ship launched.

With nearly 1000 African-American women employed as burners, welders, scalers, and in other capacities at the Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, California, women war workers played an important part in the construction of the Liberty Ship, SS George Washington Carver, launched on May 7th, 1943. Welder-trainee Josie Lucille Owens plies her trade on the ship.

At Kaiser shipyards, Richmond, California, Miss Eastine Cowner, a former waitress, is helping in her job as a scaler to construct the Liberty Ship SS George Washington Carver, launched on May 7, 1943.

Pipecoverers (identities unknown) stitch insulation around some of the 7.5 miles of piping that went into each Liberty ship. Photo courtesy Shipyard Society, New England Shipbuilding Co., South Portland, Maine.

  • Length: 441 feet, 6 inches
  • Breadth: 56 feet, 10 3/4 inches
  • Depth: 37 feet, 4 inches
  • Gross Tons: 7,176 DWT 10,414 tons
  • Cargo Capacity: 500,000 cubic feet
  • Average Speed: 10-11 knots

2830 Nachman Syrkin
0455 Nancy Hanks
1214 Napoleon B. Broward
2574 Narcissa Whitman
1539 Nathan B. Forrest
0944 Nathan Clifford
0072 Nathan Hale
2740 Nathan S. Davis
1008 Nathan Towson
0146 Nathanael Greene
0167 Nathaniel Alexander
1903 Nathaniel B. Palmer
0011 Nathaniel Bacon
0429 Nathaniel Bowditch
2078 Nathaniel Crosby
0529 Nathaniel Currier
0187 Nathaniel Hawthorne
1598 Nathaniel J. Wyeth
0880 Nathaniel Macon
2938 Nathaniel Scudder
2940 Nathaniel Silsbee
2492 Negley D. Cochran
2371 Neils Poulson
0810 Nelson Dingley
3123 Nelson W. Aldrich
1520 Newton D. Baker
0917 Nicholas Biddle
2929 Nicholas D. Lnhadie
0103 Nicholas Gilman
1052 Nicholas Herkimer
2035 Nicholas J. Sinnott
1908 Nicholas Longworth
2307 Nick Stoner
1792 Nikola Tesla
2481 Noah Brown
0500 Noah H. Swain
0776 Noah Webster
2169 Norman E. Mack
2167 Norman Hapgood
2285 Norman J. Colman
1932 Norman O. Pedrick

2926 O. B. Martin
0486 O. Henry
2800 O. L. Bodenhamer
2650 Oakley Wood
1574 Ole E. Rolvaag
0042 Oliver Ellsworth
1109 Oliver Evans
0278 Oliver Hazard Perry
2725 Oliver Kelley
2936 Oliver Loving
0194 Oliver Wendell Holmes
3109 Oliver Westover
0256 Oliver Wolcott
2193 Omar E. Chapman
1929 Opie Read
3148 Ora Ellis
1940 Oran M. Roberts
1912 Orland Loomis
1888 Orson D. Munn
1777 Orville P. Taylor
1962 Oscar Chappell
1885 Oscar F. Barrett
1918 Oscar S. Straus
2238 Oscar Underwood
2973 Otis E. HalI
2130 Otis Skinner
2157 Otto Mears
2693 Ovid Butler
1592 Owen Summers
1216 Owen Wister

1655 P. T. Barnum
2370 P. Walton Moore
0079 Paine Wingate
2668 Palawan
3008 Par Benjamin
0823 Park Holland
0143 Pat Harrison
2404 Patrick B. Whalen
1786 Patrick C. Boyle
1507 Patrick H. Morrissey
0014 Patrick Henry
2400 Patrick S. Mahony
3084 Paul Buck
2966 Paul Bunyan
2230 Paul Chandler
2977 Paul David Jones
1897 Paul Dunbar
0227 Paul Hamilton
0865 Paul Hamilton Hayne
0068 Paul Revere
1923 Paul Tulane
0927 Pearl Harbor
2313 Pedro Menendez
2203 Peleg Wadsworth
0868 Penelope Barker
2199 Percy D. Haughton
2747 Percy E. Foxworth
0452 Pere Marquette
0824 Peregrine White
0632 Peter Cartwright
1769 Peter Cooper
2114 Peter Cooper Hewitt
2070 Peter Desmet
1234 Peter Donahue
0300 Peter H. Burnett
0325 Peter J. McGuire
0035 Peter Minuit
2584 Peter Moran
0288 Peter Silvester
0595 Peter Skene Ogden
1212 Peter Stuyvesant
2181 Peter Trumble Rowe
0661 Peter V. Daniel
2256 Peter White
1527 Peter Zenger
2243 Petter Lassen
1028 Philander C. Knox
0660 Philip B. Barbour
2545 Philip C. Shera
1971 Philip Doddridge
1781 Philip F. Thomas
0326 Philip H. Sheridan
1227 Philip Kearny
0177 Philip Livingston
0181 Philip Schuyler
0711 Phineas Banning
0694 Phoebe A. Hearst
0306 Pierce Butler
1608 Pierre Gibault
1001 Pierre L'Enfant
0507 Pierre Laclede
0567 Pierre S. Dupont
0320 Pierre Soule
0696 Pio Pico
2862 Pittsburg Seam
2022 Pleasant Armstrong
0871 Pocahontas
2853 Pocahontas Seam
1193 Ponce De Leon
2971 Pontus H. Ross
2855 Powellton Seam
2093 Prince L. Campbell
1813 Priscilla Alden
2471 Propus
3002 Psara planned name Mark A. Davis

2017 R. C. Brennan
2180 R. F. Peckham
2377 R. J. Reynolds
2062 R. P. Warner
2452 R. S. Wilson
0721 Rachel Jackson
2337 Rafael R. Rivera
1910 Ralph A. Cram
2570 Ralph Barnes
0914 Ralph Izard
2685 Ralph T. O'Neil
0192 Ralph Waldo Emerson
2330 Ransom A. Moore
3016 Raymond B. Stevens
2479 Raymond Clapper
2236 Raymond T. Baker
2317 Raymond V. Ingersoll
2339 Raymond Van Brogan
2425 Rebecca Boone
1551 Rebecca Lukens
0439 Redfield Proctor
2844 Redstone Seam
1745 Reginald A. Fessenden
2105 Reinhold Richter
2215 RenaId Fernald
0051 Reverdy Johnson
2401 Richard A. Van Pelt
2705 Richard B. Moore
0041 Richard Bassett
0028 Richard Bland
0870 Richard Caswell
2878 Richard Coulter
3099 Richard D. Lyons
0163 Richard D. Spaight
0053 Richard H. Alvey
2323 Richard Halliburton
1630 Richard Harding Davis
0458 Richard Henderson
0294 Richard Henry Dana
0018 Richard Henry Lee
0338 Richard Hovey
1883 Richard J. Cleveland
2963 Richard J. Hopkins
2526 Richard J. Oglesby
0419 Richard Jordan Gatling
2473 Richard K. Call
1049 Richard M. Johnson
0608 Richard Mansfield
0426 Richard March Hoe
1731 Richard Moczowski
1199 Richard Montgomery
2925 Richard O'Brien
1026 Richard Olney
2383 Richard Randall
0621 Richard Rush
0840 Richard S. Ewell
0261 Richard Stockton
2864 Richard Upjohn
2297 Richard V. Ouiahan
0454 Richard Yates
0316 Richmond Mumford Pearson
1994 Richmond P. Hobson
1701 Ring Lardner
2870 Risden Tyler Bennett
3056 Robert B. Forbes
1027 Robert Bacon
1506 Robert Battey
0663 Robert C. Grier
2769 Robert D. Carey
1974 Robert Dale Owen
2956 Robert E. Clarkson
0440 Robert E. Peary
1015 Robert Eden
2603 Robert Ellis Lewis
1009 Robert Erskine
2805 Robert F. Broussard
3146 Robert F. Burns
1968 Robert F. Hoke
0296 Robert F. Stockton
1066 Robert Fechner
0230 Robert Fithon
2719 Robert G. Cousins
0234 Robert G. Harper
1855 Robert G. Ingersoll
0173 Robert Gray
0498 Robert H. Harrison
2913 Robert Henri
0879 Robert Howe
2392 Robert J. Banks
1003 Robert J. Collier
0629 Robert J. Walker
0796 Robert Jordan
2240 Robert L. Hague
2189 Robert L. Vann
1531 Robert Lansing
2184 Robert Louis Stevenson
1044 Robert Lowry
1560 Robert Lucas
0348 Robert M. T. Hunter
2498 Robert Mills
0070 Robert Morris
2968 Robert Neighbors
2006 Robert Newell
2886 Robert Parrot
1516 Robert R. Livingston
3062 Robert R. McBurney
2200 Robert R. Randall
0797 Robert Rogers
0904 Robert Rowan
2785 Robert S. Abbott
2077 Robert S. Bean
2950 Robert S. Lovett
0706 Robert Stuart
1941 Robert T. Hill
0437 Robert T. Lincoln
0347 Robert Toombs
0792 Robert Treat
0032 Robert Treat Paine
1493 Robert Trimble
2794 Robert W. Bingham
3125 Robert W. Hart
2941 Robert Watchorn
1198 Robert Y. Hayne
1024 Robt. M. LaFollette
2858 Roda Seam
0017 Roger B. Taney
1032 Roger Griswold
0903 Roger Moore
0260 Roger Sherman
0224 Roger Williams
1834 Ross G. Marvin
2403 Roy James Cole
2841 Roy K. Johnson
1219 Royal S. Copeland
2866 Ruben Dario
2888 Rudolph Kauffmann
1204 Rufus C. Dawes
2931 Rufus Choate
2451 Rufus E. Foster
0280 Rufus King
0940 Rufus W. Peckham
1754 Russell A. Alger
2564 Russell H. Chittenden
2990 Russell R. Jones
1545 Russell Sage

0479 S. Hall Young
0590 S. M. Babcock
2667 S. M. Shoemaker
2663 S. Wiley Wakeman
2423 Sabik
0612 Sacajawea
1969 Sallie S. Cotton
0577 Salmon B. Chase
1543 Salvador Brau
0095 Sam Houston
1936 Sam Houston II
1591 Sam Jackson
3020 Samadang
3014 Samadre
2598 Samaffric
1517 Samalness
2216 Samannan
2683 Samar
2356 Samaustral
3015 Sambanka
2444 Samcebu
2415 Samchess
2405 Samclyde
2604 Samcolne
2599 Samconon
2621 Samconstant
2408 Samcree
3007 Samdaring
2437 Samdart
2617 Samdauntless
3009 Samderry
2224 Samderwent
2210 Samdon
2609 Samdonard
2214 Samearn
2602 Sameden
2417 Samesk
2600 Samethy
2407 Samettrick
2410 Sameveron
2350 Samfairy
2623 Samfaithful
2409 Samfeugh
2352 Samfinn
2626 Samfleet
1853 Samforth
2351 Samfoyle
2610 Samgallion
2596 Samgaudie
2627 Samglory
2613 Samhope
2435 Samhorn
3022 Samidway
2641 Samindoro
2357 Samingoy
2591 Saminver
2607 Samjack
2632 Samjrcedom
2646 Samlamu
2605 Samlea
2587 Samleven
2355 Samleyte
2636 Samlistar
2358 Samlorian
2593 Samlossie
2625 Samloyal
2639 Samluzon
2589 Samlyth
2611 Samneagh
2640 Samnegros
2412 Samnid
2359 Samoland
3018 Samoresby
2630 Samorest
2413 Samouse
2354 Samselbu
2606 Samshee
2644 Samskern
3024 Samsmola
2629 Samsoaring
1878 Samson Occum
2638 Samspeed
2608 Samspelga
3005 Samsperrin
2223 Samstrae
2590 Samstrule
2615 Samsturdy
3021 Samsuva
2645 Samsylarna
2643 Samtana
2411 Samtay
2218 Samteviot
2635 Samtorch
2619 Samtrusty
2633 Samtruth
1852 Samtweed
2222 Samtyne
2030 Samuel A. Worcester
0071 Samuel Adams
0164 Samuel Ashe
0937 Samuel Blatchford
0981 Samuel Bowles completed as US Navy Luzon
2110 Samuel Brannon
0023 Samuel Chase
0585 Samuel Colt
0622 Samuel D. Ingham
0450 Samuel de Champlain
1031 Samuel Dexter
0331 Samuel F. B. Morse
2647 Samuel F. B. Morse
0501 Samuel F. Miller
2294 Samuel G. French
2324 Samuel G. Howe
0640 Samuel Gompers I
2699 Samuel Gompers II
1459 Samuel Gorton
0104 Samuel Griffin
1949 Samuel H. Walker
0651 Samuel Heintselman
0248 Samuel Huntington
2689 Samuel I. Cobb
0597 Samuel J. Tilden
0046 Samuel Johnston
0141 Samuel Jordon Kirkwood
2044 Samuel K. Barlow
2997 Samuel L. Jeffery
2058 Samuel Lancaster
0109 Samuel Livermore
1815 Samuel M. Ralston
1000 Samuel Mclntyre
0235 Samuel Moody
0662 Samuel Nelson
0702 Samuel P. Langley
0593 Samuel Parker
3127 Samuel R. Aitken
0572 Samuel Seabury
2433 Samuel T. Darling
2580 Samuel V. Stewart
2163 Samuel W. Williston
2353 Samvigna
3017 Samwake
2624 Samwinged
2221 Samwye
2212 Samythian
0695 Sane Grey
1907 Sanford B. Dole
0961 Santiago Igleslas
2750 Sara Bache
2178 Sara Teasdale
1538 Sarah J. Hale
2219 Sarah Orne Jewett
1899 Schuyler Colfax
2701 Seaman A. Knapp
1233 Sebastian Cermeno
0680 Sebastian Vizcaino
2453 Seginus
2528 Segundo Ruiz Belvis
2824 Sewanee Seam
2851 Sewell Seam
0482 Sheldon Jackson
2562 Sherman O. Houghton
2544 Sherwood Anderson
2076 Sidney Edgerton
2760 Sidney H. Short
1900 Sidney Howard
1197 Sidney Lanier
0856 Sidney Sherman
2652 Sidney Wright
2809 Sieur de LaSalle
0457 Sieur Duluth
0975 Silas Weir Mitchell
2271 Silvestre Escalante
2531 Simeon G. Reed
1802 Simon B. Elliott
2108 Simon Bamberger
2033 Simon Benson
1623 Simon Bolivar
0733 Simon Newcomb
0743 Simon Willard
0654 Smith Thompson
0709 Solomon Juneau
2331 Soter Ortynsky
0033 St. Olaf
1804 Stage Door Canteen
2007 Stanford Newel
0738 Stanford White
0505 Stanley Matthews
3116 Stanley R. Fisher
3004 Stanton H. King
0171 Star of Oregon
0297 Starr King
2320 Stepas Darius
0231 Stephen A. Douglas
0618 Stephen B. Elkins
2483 Stephen Beasley
0276 Stephen C. Foster
2252 Stephen G. Porter
1578 Stephen Crane
0265 Stephen F. Austin
2299 Stephen Furdek
0578 Stephen Girard
1682 Stephen H. Long
0247 Stephen Hopkins I
2283 Stephen Hopkins II
0085 Stephen Johnson Field
2868 Stephen Leacock
0666 Stephen M. White
1540 Stephen R. Mollory
2326 Stephen Smith
1676 Stephen T. Mather
1681 Stephen Vincent Benet
2601 Stephen W. Gambrill
1729 Stephen W. Kearny
0982 Stevenson Taylor
2840 Streator Seam
2922 Sul Ross
2188 Sumner I. Kimball
1235 Sun Yat Sen
2213 Susan Colby
2618 Sverre Helmersen
0795 Sylvester Gardiner
1914 Sylvester Pattie
2455 Syrma

2304 T. A. Johnston
2946 T. E. Mitchell
0121 T. L. Jackson
3094 T. S. Gold
0582 Tabitha Brown
1040 Tarleton Brown
1120 Tecumsch
2507 Telfair Stockton
1770 Tench Tilghman
2695 Terry E. Stephenson
0926 Thaddeus Kosciuszko
1635 Thaddeus S. C. Lowe
0268 Theo. Sedgwick
0717 Theodore Dwight Weld
0043 Theodore Foster
0718 Theodore Parker
1814 Theodore Roosevelt
0124 Theodoric Bland
0584 Thomas A. Edison
2011 Thomas A. Hendricks
2369 Thomas B. King
0804 Thomas B. Reed
0122 Thomas B. Robertson
0199 Thomas Bailey Aldrich
3047 Thomas Bradlee
2952 Thomas Bulfinch
1719 Thomas C. Power
0822 Thomas Clyde
2032 Thomas Condon
0531 Thomas Corwin
2524 Thomas Crawford
0948 Thomas Cresap
2592 Thomas Donaldson
2955 Thomas Eakins
0701 Thomas East
0625 Thomas Ewing
0989 Thomas F. Bayard completed as Edvard Grieg
1919 Thomas F. Cunningham
2784 Thomas F. Flaherty
2696 Thomas F. Hunt
3077 Thomas F. Meagher
1036 Thomas Fitzsimons
1868 Thomas G. Masaryk
1898 Thomas H. Galiaudet
3034 Thomas H. Sumner
1228 Thomas Hart Benton
0105 Thomas Hartley
0006 Thomas Heyward
1644 Thomas Hill
0203 Thomas Hooker
2091 Thomas Howell
1982 Thomas J. Jarvis
2478 Thomas J. Lyons
0272 Thomas J. Rusk
2069 Thomas J. Walsh
0175 Thomas Jefferson
0659 Thomas Johnson
0462 Thomas Kearns
0908 Thomas L. Clingman
2518 Thomas L. Haley
2295 Thomas Levalley
0009 Thomas Lynch
1711 Thomas M. Cooley
0179 Thomas MacDonough
0301 Thomas McKean
0030 Thomas Nelson
0995 Thomas Nelson Page
2026 Thomas Nuttall
1656 Thomas Oliver Larkin
2815 Thomas P. Leathers
0065 Thomas Paine
0223 Thomas Pinckney
2001 Thomas Pollock
0933 Thomas R. Marshall
0039 Thomas Ruffin
2917 Thomas Say
0133 Thomas Scott
0921 Thomas Sim Lee
0135 Thomas Sinnickson
0027 Thomas Stone
1205 Thomas Sully
0154 Thomas Sumter
0269 Thomas T. Tucker
1492 Thomas Todd
1756 Thomas U. Walter
0905 Thomas W. Bickett
1955 Thomas W. Gregory
0801 Thomas W. Hyde
2898 Thomas W. Murray
1993 Thomas W. Owen
2051 Thomas W. Symons
1073 Thomas Wolfe
1757 Thorstein Veblen
1033 Timothy Bloodworth
0779 Timothy Dwight
0246 Timothy Pickering
0817 Tobias Lear
1739 Tobius E. Stansbury
3130 Tom Treanor
2942 Tomas Guardia
2780 Toussaint L'Ouverture
1020 Townsend Harris
0307 Tristram Dalton
1779 Tutuila

1811 U.S.O.
2729 Uriah M. Rose

2100 Vachel Lindsay
1691 Vernon L. Kellogg
2172 Vernon L. Parrington
2343 Vernon S. Hood
2083 Victor C. Vaughn
1871 Victor F. Lawson
1532 Victor Herbert
2661 Vincent Harrington
0147 Virginia Dare
0463 Vitus Bering

2097 W. B. Ayer
2736 W. B. Rodgers
2462 W. C. Latta
2363 W. P. Few
1797 W. R. Grace
2487 W. S. Jennings
2247 W. W. McCrackin
1810 W. Walter Husband
0315 Wade Hampton
0910 Waigstill Avery
2796 Walker D. Hines
0902 Walker Taylor
2992 Wallace M. Tyler
2778 Wallace R. Farrington
0195 Walt Whitman
1113 Walter Camp
0509 Walter Colton
0775 Walter E. Ranger
3144 Walter E. Schwenk
3131 Walter F. Perry
0626 Walter Forward
2983 Walter Frederick Kraft
0912 Walter Hines Page
2656 Walter Kidde
1542 Walter L. Fleming
2511 Walter M. Christiansen
1025 Walter Q. Gresham
0877 Walter Raleigh
1753 Walter Reed
2962 Walter Wellman
2291 Walter Williams
2266 Walter Wyman
0972 Ward Hunt
2597 Warren Delano
2346 Warren P. Marks
2217 Washington Allston
0197 Washington Irving
2251 Watson C. Squire
2142 Wayne MacVeagh
2205 Webb Miller
2666 Webster
2333 Wendell L. Willkie
0638 Wendell Phillips
2345 Wesley W. Barrett
2534 Wilbur O. Atwater
1101 Wilbur Wright
1640 Wiley Post
1673 Wilfred Grenfell
3105 Wilfred R. Bellevue
0923 WilI Rogers
2978 Will B. Otwell
1956 Will R. Wood
0930 Willard Hall
2996 Willard R. Johnson
2763 Willet M. Hays
2122 William A. Coulter
3089 William A. Dobson
0160 William A. Graham
2572 William A. Henry
0537 William A. Jones
1223 William A. Richardson
2282 William Allen White
2985 William Asa Carter
0724 William B. Allison
1926 William B. Bankhead
2733 William B. Leeds
0469 William B. Ogden
0266 William B. Travis
1537 William B. Wilson
1490 William B. Woods
0699 William B. Young
1579 William Beaumont
3095 William Bevan
1062 William Black Yates
0826 William Blackstone
0314 William Blount
0208 William Bradford
0209 William Brewster
1203 William Byrd
0120 William C. C. Claiborne
0438 William C. Endicott
0745 William C. Gorgas
2046 William C. Lane
2124 William C. Ralston
1632 William Carson
0172 William Clark
1457 William Coddington
2394 William Cox
2485 William Crane Gray
1746 William Crompton
0189 William Cullen Bryant
0496 William Cushing
2306 William D. Bloxham
2735 William D. Boyce
1727 William D. Burnham
2588 William D. Byron
2260 William D. Hoard
2443 William D. Hoxie
0895 William D. Moseley
0894 William D. Pender
0180 William Dawes
0489 William Dean Howells
0821 William Dewitt Hyde
0707 William Dunbar
0614 William E. Borah
2308 William E. Dodd
1742 William E. Pendleton
2279 William E. Ritter
. William Eaton
0249 William Ellery
0637 William Ellery Channing
0828 William Eustis
0295 William F. Cody
2187 William F. Empey
2393 William F. Jerman
1672 William F. MacLennan
1699 William F. Vilas
0309 William Few
0076 William Floyd
2721 William Ford Nichols
0735 William G. Gargo
2865 William G. Lee
0443 William G. McAdoo
1211 William G. Sumner
2008 William G. T'Vault
0159 William Gaston
2553 William Glackens
0310 William Grayson
1714 William H. Allen
2246 William H. Ashley
0521 William H. Aspinwall
1902 William H. Carruth
2687 William H. Clagett
0830 William H. Crawford
2258 William H. Dall
2880 William H. Edwards
2009 William H. Gray
2828 William H. Hendrick
1006 William H. Jackson
3111 William H. Lane
1631 William H. McGuffey
2153 William H. Moody
0093 William H. Prescott
0562 William H. Seward
0818 William H. Todd
0980 William H. Webb
0953 William H. Welch
0959 William H. Wilmer
0319 William Harper
0222 William Hawkins
2653 William Hodson
0148 William Hooper
2054 William Hume
2576 William I. Chamberlain
1863 William I. Kip
1522 William J. Bryan
0624 William J. Duane
2766 William J. Gray
2113 William J. Palmer
2340 William J. Riddle
0704 William J. Worth
0736 William James
0040 William Johnson
2987 William K. Kamaka
0493 William K. Vanderbilt
1722 William Keith
1872 William Kelly
1225 William Kent
0206 William King
0901 William L. Davidson
0688 William L. Marcy
2890 William L. McLean
0275 William L. Smith
2245 William L. Sublette
2310 William L. Watson
1056 William L. Yancey
3030 William Leavitt
2895 William Leory Gable
2672 William Libbey
0653 William Lloyd Garrison
3053 William Lyon Phelps
2428 William M. Eastland
1038 William M. Evarts
1638 William M. Gwin
0630 William M. Meredith
1957 William M. Rayburn
0087 William M. Stewart
0047 William MacLay
1720 William Matson
0932 William McKinley
0153 William Moultrie
0677 William Mulholland
1695 William N. Byers
0842 William N. Pendleton
0954 William Osler converted to USAT Hospital Ship Wisteria
2319 William P. Duval
0768 William P. Fessenden
0555 William P. McArthur
0302 William Paca
0048 William Patterson
2727 William Peffer
0974 William Pepper
0803 William Pepperell
0784 William Phips
0212 William Pierce Frye
2197 William Pitt Preble
1586 William Prouse
2406 William R. Cox
0158 William R. Davie
0941 William R. Day
2984 William R. Lewis
1684 William R. Nelson
0667 William Raton
0061 William Rawle
2651 William S. Baer
2162 William S. Clark
0956 William S. Halsted
2084 William S. Ladd
0570 William S. Rosencrans
1761 William S. Thayer
2774 William Schirmer
2106 William Sharon
1774 William Smallwood
2286 William Sproule
0970 William Strong
0800 William Sturgis
1980 William T. Barry
1224 William T. Coleman
0600 William T. Sherman
2894 William Terry Howell
1102 William Thornton
0059 William Tilghman
3048 William Tyler
0993 William Tyler Page
2724 William Vaughn Moody
2117 William W. Campbell
0977 William W. Gerhard
2993 William W. Johnson
1546 William W. Loring
1572 William W. Mayo
2835 William W. McKee
2892 William W. Seaton
2464 William Wheelwright
0255 William Whipple
0837 William Wilkins
0263 William Williams
0516 William Windom
1904 William Winter
0050 William Wirt
2550 William Wolfskill
0890 Willie Jones
2052 Willis C. Hawley
1832 Willis J. Abbott
0088 Willis Van Devanter
3067 Wilson B. Keene
2023 Wilson P. Hunt
1703 Winfield S. Stratton
0098 Winfield Scott
0967 Winfred L. Smith
0769 Winslow Homer
3069 Winthrop L. Marvin
0127 William B. Giles
0931 Woodbridge N. Ferris
0893 Woodrow Wilson
1860 Wyatt Earp
2945 Wynn Seale

0244 Zachary Taylor
2422 Zaniah
0145 Zebulon B. Vance
0073 Zebulon Pike
1689 Zona Gale

Triggering or Fuzes

The first USA designed mine, the Mark 5, was of the "Horned" type. Horns were made of soft metal such as lead and held a glass ampoule containing battery acid, usually potassium-bichromate. The lower end of the horn contained an electric battery minus the electrolyte. Contact with the horn broke open the acid container, energizing the battery which then heated a platinum wire in a mercury fulminate detonator, thus exploding the mine. By definition, this was a weapon with limited range and fields needed to be densely packed in order for it to be effective against shipping. However, such close-laid fields ran the risk of one mine setting off adjacent mines as fraternal kills.

The "K-pistol" of the Mark 6 used a copper antenna which extended upwards to just below the surface. This was connected by a relay to a copper plate on the outside of the mine. Seawater acted as the electrolyte of a battery which would be formed when a ship with a steel hull approached and touched the antenna. The current running down the antenna operated the relay and exploded the mine. This method allowed each mine to cover a wider area, meaning that fewer mines could be used to cover a given area than with the horn type. In modern terms, the "K" device exploited the Underwater Electric Potential (UEP) effect.

Magnetic triggers were originally only used on ground (bottom) mines. This is because, if they were moored, the changing of the magnetic field as they rose and fell with the tide would set them off. Near the end of World War II, a trigger that measured the total field around the mine was developed. This device added up the fields in such a way that the tides did not affect it.

Acoustic mines measure sound of certain frequencies, usually those of propeller, engine and sonar noises.

Pressure detector fuzes measure the pressure wave created by a ship moving through the water. These were simultaneously developed by both Germany and the USA during World War II, but both held off deploying them for fear that the technology would be captured by the other side. They were first used in combat off the Normandy beaches and were heavily used against the Japanese home islands near the end of the war.


In December 1758, Pitt the Elder, in his role as head of the British government, placed an order for the building of 12 ships, including a first-rate ship that would become Victory. [2] During the 18th century, Victory was one of ten first-rate ships to be constructed. [3] The outline plans were based on HMS Royal George which had been launched at Woolwich Dockyard in 1756, and the naval architect chosen to design the ship was Sir Thomas Slade who, at the time, was the Surveyor of the Navy. [4] She was designed to carry at least 100 guns. The commissioner of Chatham Dockyard was instructed to prepare a dry dock for the construction. [5] The keel was laid on 23 July 1759 in the Old Single Dock (since renamed No. 2 Dock and now Victory Dock), and a name, Victory, was chosen in October 1760. [6] In 1759, the Seven Years' War was going well for Britain land victories had been won at Quebec and Minden and naval battles had been won at Lagos and Quiberon Bay. It was the Annus Mirabilis, or Wonderful Year, and the ship's name may have been chosen to commemorate the victories [7] [8] or it may have been chosen simply because out of the seven names shortlisted, Victory was the only one not in use. [9] [10] There were some doubts whether this was a suitable name since the previous Victory had been lost with all on board in 1744. [10]

A team of 150 workmen were assigned to construct Victory ' s frame. [11] Around 6,000 trees were used in her construction, of which 90% were oak and the remainder elm, pine and fir, together with a small quantity of lignum vitae. [12] The wood of the hull was held in place by six-foot copper bolts, supported by treenails for the smaller fittings. [11] Once the ship's frame had been built, it was normal to cover it up and leave it for several months to allow the wood to dry out or "season". The end of the Seven Years' War meant that Victory remained in this condition for nearly three years, which helped her subsequent longevity. [13] [14] Work restarted in autumn 1763 and she was floated on 7 May 1765, [15] having cost £63,176 and 3 shillings, [16] the equivalent of £8.7 million today. [Note 1]

On the day of the launch, shipwright Hartly Larkin, designated "foreman afloat" for the event, suddenly realised that the ship might not fit through the dock gates. Measurements at first light confirmed his fears: the gates were at least 9½ inches too narrow. He told the news to his superior, master shipwright John Allin, who considered abandoning the launch. Larkin asked for the assistance of every available shipwright, and they hewed away enough wood from the gates with their adzes for the ship to pass safely through. [17] However, the launch itself revealed significant problems in the ship's design, including a distinct list to starboard and a tendency to sit heavily in the water such that her lower deck gunports were only 4 ft 6 in (1.4 m) above the waterline. The first of these problems was rectified after launch by increasing the ship's ballast to settle her upright on the keel. The second problem, regarding the siting of the lower gunports, could not be rectified. Instead it was noted in Victory ' s sailing instructions that these gunports would have to remain closed and unusable in rough weather. This had potential to limit Victory ' s firepower, though in practice none of her subsequent actions would be fought in rough seas. [18]

Because there was no immediate use for her, she was placed in ordinary and moored in the River Medway. [19] Internal fitting out continued over the next four years, and sea trials were completed in 1769, after which she was returned to her Medway berth. She remained there until France joined the American War of Independence in 1778. [20] Victory was now placed in active service as part of a general mobilisation against the French threat. This included arming her with a full complement of smooth bore, cast iron cannon. Her weaponry was intended to be thirty 42-pounders (19 kg) on her lower deck, twenty-eight 24-pounder long guns (11 kg) on her middle deck, and thirty 12-pounders (5 kg) on her upper deck, together with twelve 6-pounders on her quarterdeck and forecastle. In May 1778, the 42-pounders were replaced by 32-pounders (15 kg), but the 42-pounders were reinstated in April 1779 however, there were insufficient 42-pounders available and these were replaced with 32-pounder cannon again. [18]

First battle of Ushant Edit

Victory was commissioned (put on active duty) in March 1778 under Captain John Lindsay. He held that position until May 1778, when Admiral Augustus Keppel made her his flagship, and appointed Rear Admiral John Campbell (1st Captain) and Captain Jonathan Faulknor (2nd Captain). [16] Keppel put to sea from Spithead on 9 July 1778 with a force of around twenty-nine ships of the line and, on 23 July, sighted a French fleet of roughly equal force 100 miles (160 km) west of Ushant. [21] [22] The French admiral, Louis Guillouet, comte d'Orvilliers, who had orders to avoid battle, was cut off from Brest, but retained the weather gage. Manoeuvring was made difficult by changing winds and driving rain, but eventually a battle became inevitable, with the British more or less in column and the French in some confusion. However, the French managed to pass along the British line with their most advanced ships. At about a quarter to twelve, Victory opened fire on Bretagne of 110 guns, which was being followed by Ville de Paris of 90 guns. [23] The British van escaped with little loss, but Sir Hugh Palliser's rear division suffered considerably. Keppel made the signal to follow the French, but Palliser did not conform and the action was not resumed. [23] Keppel was court martialled and cleared and Palliser criticised by an inquiry before the affair turned into a political argument. [23]

Second Battle of Ushant Edit

In March 1780, Victory ' s hull was sheathed with 3,923 sheets of copper below the waterline to protect it against shipworm. [12] On 2 December 1781, the ship, now commanded by Captain Henry Cromwell and bearing the flag of Rear Admiral Richard Kempenfelt, sailed with eleven other ships of the line, a 50-gun fourth-rate, and five frigates, [24] to intercept a French convoy that had sailed from Brest on 10 December. Not knowing that the convoy was protected by twenty-one ships of the line under the command of Luc Urbain de Bouexic, comte de Guichen, Kempenfelt ordered a chase when they were sighted on 12 December and began the battle. [24] When he noted the French superiority, he contented himself with capturing fifteen sail of the convoy. The French were dispersed in a gale and forced to return home. [24]

Siege of Gibraltar Edit

Victory ' s armament was slightly upgraded in 1782 with the replacement of all of her 6-pounders with 12-pounder cannon. Later, she also carried two carronade guns, firing 68-lb (31 kg) round shot. [25]

In October 1782, Victory under Admiral Richard Howe was the fleet flagship of a powerful escort flotilla for a convoy of transports which resupplied Gibraltar in the event of a blockade by the French and Spanish navies. No resistance was encountered on entering the straits and the supplies were successfully unloaded. There was a minor engagement at the time of departure, in which Victory did not fire a shot. The British ships were under orders to return home and did so without major incident. [26] [27]

Battle of Cape St. Vincent Edit

In 1796, Captain Robert Calder (First Captain) and Captain George Grey (Second Captain), commanded Victory under Admiral Sir John Jervis's flag. [16] [28] By the end of 1796, the British position in the Mediterranean had become untenable. Jervis had stationed his fleet off Cape St Vincent to prevent the Spanish from sailing north, whilst Horatio Nelson was to oversee the evacuation of Elba. [29] [30] Once the evacuation had been accomplished, Nelson, in HMS Minerve, sailed for Gibraltar. On learning that the Spanish fleet had passed by some days previous, Nelson left to rendezvous with Jervis on 11 February. [31] The Spanish fleet, which had been blown off course by easterly gales, was that night working its way to Cadiz. [30] The darkness and a dense fog meant Nelson was able to pass through the enemy fleet without being spotted and join Jervis on 13 February. [32] Jervis, whose fleet had been reinforced on 5 February by five ships from Britain under Rear-Admiral William Parker, now had 15 ships of the line. [33] The following morning, having drawn up his fleet into two columns, Jervis impressed upon the officers on Victory ' s quarterdeck how, "A victory to England is very essential at the moment". Jervis was not aware of the size of the fleet he was facing, but at around 0630 hours, received word that five Spanish warships were to the south-east. [28] By 0900 hours the first enemy ships were visible from Victory ' s masthead, and at 1100 hours, Jervis gave the order to form line of battle. [34] As the Spanish ships became visible to him, Calder reported the numbers to Jervis, but when he reached 27, Jervis replied, "Enough, Sir. No more of that. The die is cast and if there are 50 sail, I will go through them". [35] The Spanish were caught by surprise, sailing in two divisions with a gap that Jervis aimed to exploit. [28] The ship's log records how Victory halted the Spanish division, raking ships both ahead and astern, while Jervis' private memoirs recall how Victory ' s broadside so terrified Principe de Asturias that she "squared her yards, ran clear out of the battle and did not return". [36] Jervis, realising that the main bulk of the enemy fleet could now cross astern and reunite, ordered his ships to change course, but Sir Charles Thompson, leading the rear division, failed to comply. The following ships were now in a quandary over whether to obey the Admiral's signal or follow their divisional commander. Nelson, who had transferred to HMS Captain, was the first to break off and attack the main fleet as Jervis had wanted and other ships soon followed his example. [37] [38] The British fleet not only achieved its main objective, that of preventing the Spanish from joining their French and Dutch allies in the channel, but also captured four ships. [38] The dead and wounded from these four ships alone amounted to 261 and 342, respectively more than the total number of British casualties of 73 dead and 327 wounded. [39] There was one fatality aboard Victory a cannonball narrowly missed Jervis and decapitated a nearby sailor. [38]

— Naval architect Sir Robert Seppings, describing defects aboard Victory, September 1796 [40]

On her return to England, Victory was examined for seaworthiness and found to have significant weaknesses in her stern timbers. She was declared unfit for active service and left anchored off Chatham Dockyard. In December 1796 she was ordered to be converted to a hospital ship to hold wounded French and Spanish prisoners of war. [16] [41]

However, on 8 October 1799, HMS Impregnable was lost off Chichester, having run aground on her way back to Portsmouth after escorting a convoy to Lisbon. [41] She could not be refloated and so was stripped and dismantled. Now short of a three-decked ship of the line, the Admiralty decided to recondition Victory. Work started in 1800, but as it proceeded, an increasing number of defects were found and the repairs developed into a very extensive reconstruction. [41] The original estimate was £23,500, but the final cost was £70,933. [9] Extra gun ports were added, taking her from 100 guns to 104, and her magazine lined with copper. The open galleries along her stern were removed [40] her figurehead was replaced along with her masts and the paint scheme changed from red to the black and yellow seen today. Her gun ports were originally yellow to match the hull, but later repainted black, giving a pattern later called the "Nelson chequer", which was adopted by most Royal Navy ships in the decade following the Battle of Trafalgar. [42] [43] The work was completed in April 1803, and the ship left for Portsmouth the following month under her new captain, Samuel Sutton. [16] [44]

Vice-Admiral Nelson hoisted his flag in Victory on 18 May 1803, with Samuel Sutton as his flag captain. [16] The Dispatches and Letters of Vice Admiral Lord Nelson (Volume 5, page 68) record that "Friday 20 May a.m. . Nelson . came on board. Saturday 21st (i.e.the afternoon of the 20th) Unmoored ship and weighed. Made sail out of Spithead . when H.M.Ship Amphion joined, and proceeded to sea in company with us" – Victory's Log. Victory was under orders to meet up with Cornwallis off Brest, but after 24 hours of searching failed to find him. Nelson, anxious to reach the Mediterranean without delay, decided to transfer to Amphion off Ushant. The Dispatches and Letters (see above) record on page 71 "Tuesday 24 May (i.e. 23 May p.m.) Hove to at 7.40, Out Boats. The Admiral shifted his flag to the Amphion. At 7.50 Lord Nelson came on board the Amphion and hoisted his flag and made sail – Log."

On 28 May, Captain Sutton captured the French Ambuscade of 32 guns, bound for Rochefort. [45] Victory rejoined Lord Nelson off Toulon, where on 31 July, Captain Sutton exchanged commands with the captain of Amphion, Thomas Masterman Hardy and Nelson raised his flag in Victory once more. [46]

Victory was passing the island of Toro, near Majorca, on 4 April 1805, when HMS Phoebe brought the news that the French fleet under Pierre-Charles Villeneuve had escaped from Toulon. While Nelson made for Sicily to see if the French were heading for Egypt, Villeneuve was entering Cádiz to link up with the Spanish fleet. [47] On 9 May, Nelson received news from HMS Orpheus that Villeneuve had left Cadiz a month earlier. The British fleet completed their stores in Lagos Bay, Portugal and, on 11 May, sailed westward with ten ships and three frigates in pursuit of the combined Franco-Spanish fleet of 17 ships. [48] They arrived in the West Indies to find that the enemy was sailing back to Europe, where Napoleon Bonaparte was waiting for them with his invasion forces at Boulogne. [49]

The Franco-Spanish fleet was involved in the indecisive Battle of Cape Finisterre in fog off Ferrol with Admiral Sir Robert Calder's squadron on 22 July, before taking refuge in Vigo and Ferrol. [50] Calder on 14 August and Nelson on 15 August joined Admiral Cornwallis's Channel Fleet off Ushant. [51] Nelson continued on to England in Victory, leaving his Mediterranean fleet with Cornwallis [52] who detached twenty of his thirty-three ships of the line and sent them under Calder to find the combined fleet at Ferrol. On 19 August came the worrying news that the enemy had sailed from there, followed by relief when they arrived in Cádiz two days later. On the evening of Saturday, 28 September, Lord Nelson joined Lord Collingwood's fleet off Cádiz, quietly, so that his presence would not be known. [53]

Battle of Trafalgar Edit

After learning he was to be removed from command, Villeneuve put to sea on the morning of 19 October and when the last ship had left port, around noon the following day, he set sail for the Mediterranean. [54] The British frigates, which had been sent to keep track of the enemy fleet throughout the night, were spotted at around 1900 hours and the order was given to form line of battle. [55] On the morning of 21 October, the main British fleet, which was out of sight and sailing parallel some 10 miles away, turned to intercept. [56] Nelson had already made his plans: to break the enemy line some two or three ships ahead of their commander-in-chief in the centre and achieve victory before the van could come to their aid. [57] At 0600 hours, Nelson ordered his fleet into two columns. Fitful winds made it a slow business, and for more than six hours, the two columns of British ships slowly approached the French line before Royal Sovereign, leading the lee column, was able to open fire on Fougueux. Around 30 minutes later, Victory broke the line between Bucentaure and Redoutable firing a treble shotted broadside into the stern of the former from a range of a few yards. [58] At a quarter past one, Nelson was shot, the fatal musket ball entering his left shoulder and lodging in his spine. [59] He died at half past four. [60] Such killing had taken place on Victory ' s quarter deck that Redoutable attempted to board her, but they were thwarted by the arrival of Eliab Harvey in the 98-gun HMS Temeraire, whose broadside devastated the French ship. [61] Nelson's last order was for the fleet to anchor, but this was countermanded by Vice Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood. [62] Victory suffered 57 killed and 102 wounded. [63]

Victory had been badly damaged in the battle and was not able to move under her own sail. HMS Neptune therefore towed her to Gibraltar for repairs. [64] Victory then carried Nelson's body to England, where, after lying in state at Greenwich, he was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral on 9 January 1806. [65]

Final years afloat Edit

The Admiralty Board considered Victory too old, and in too great a disrepair, to be restored as a first-rate ship of the line. In November 1807 she was relegated to second-rate, with the removal of two 32-pounder cannon and replacement of her middle deck 24-pounders with 18-pounders obtained from other laid-up ships. She was recommissioned as a troopship between December 1810 and April 1811. [66] In 1812 she was relocated to the mouth of Portsmouth Harbour off Gosport, for service as a floating depot and, from 1813 to 1817, as a prison ship. [67] [66]

Major repairs were undertaken in 1814, including the fitting of 3 ft 10 in (1.2 m) metal braces along the inside of her hull, to strengthen the timbers. This was the first use of iron in the vessel structure, other than small bolts and nails. [68] Active service was resumed from February 1817 when she was relisted as a first-rate carrying 104 guns. However, her condition remained poor, and in January 1822 she was towed into dry dock at Portsmouth for repairs to her hull. Refloated in January 1824, she was designated as the Port admiral's flagship for Portsmouth Harbour, remaining in this role until April 1830. [66]

Victorian era Edit

In 1831 the Admiralty issued orders for Victory to be broken up and her timbers reused in other vessels. [66] A public outcry against the destruction of so famous a ship led to the order being held in abeyance and Victory was left, largely forgotten, at a Portsmouth mooring. [66] The Admiralty officially designated the ageing vessel as a tender for the port admiral ' s flagship HMS Wellington, and permitted civilian visitors to come aboard for tours. [69] The ship briefly returned to the public gaze on 18 July 1833 when the queen in waiting, Princess Victoria, and her mother, the Duchess of Kent, made a visit to her quarterdeck to meet with veterans of the Trafalgar campaign. [67] This generated a surge of interest in the vessel, and an increase in civilian visitor numbers to between 10,000 and 12,000 a year. Victoria returned for a second visit on 21 October 1844, creating a further burst of interest that lifted annual visitors to more than 22,000. [69] In late April 1854, Victory sprang a leak and sank. All on board were rescued [70] and the boat was subsequently raised. [71] In 1887 she sprang a catastrophic leak and it was only with some difficulty that she was prevented from sinking at her mooring. [69] The Admiralty thereafter provided a small annual subsidy for maintenance, and in 1889 Victory became the home of a signal school in addition to being a tender.

The impact of so much human traffic also left her increasingly decrepit, particularly in the absence of Admiralty funding for repairs. Sir Edward Seymour visited the vessel in 1886 as Flag Captain to the Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth and recalled in 1911 "a more rotten ship than she had become probably never flew the pennant. I could literally run my walking stick through her sides in many places." [72]

The school remained on Victory until 1904, when training was transferred temporarily to HMS Hercules. [73]

Despite her reuse as a school, Victory continued to deteriorate at her mooring. In 1903 she was accidentally rammed by HMS Neptune, a successor to the vessel that had towed her to Gibraltar. Emergency repairs prevented her from sinking, but Admiralty again proposed that she be scrapped and it was only the personal intervention of Edward VII that prevented this from occurring. [74] Interest in the ship revived in 1905 when, as part of the centenary celebrations of the Battle of Trafalgar, she was decorated with electric lights powered by a submarine moored alongside. [74] In 1910, the Society for Nautical Research was created to try to preserve her for future generations, but Admiralty was unable to help, having become embroiled in an escalating arms race thus by the time Frank H. Mason published The Book of British Ships in 1911, Victory ' s condition was described as "..nothing short of an insult". [75] [76] A few glimpses of the ship in 1918 are to be seen towards the end of Maurice Elvey's biopic of Nelson created in that year. [77]

In dry dock Edit

By 1921 the ship was in a very poor state, and a public Save the Victory campaign was started, with shipping magnate Sir James Caird as a major contributor. [78] On 12 January 1922, her condition was so poor that she would no longer stay afloat, and had to be moved into No. 2 dock at Portsmouth, the oldest dry dock in the world still in use. [79] [78] A naval survey revealed that between a third and a half of her internal fittings required replacement. Her steering equipment had also been removed or destroyed, along with most of her furnishings. [69]

The relocation to No. 2 dock sparked public discussion about Victory ' s future location. Suggestions in contemporary newspapers included the creation of a floating plinth atop which she could be preserved as a monument, either in Portsmouth or adjacent to the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Others proposed a berth beside Cleopatra's Needle on the Thames, or as land-based structure in Trafalgar Square. Despite popular support, these options were not seriously entertained by Admiralty. The naval architects who had surveyed the ship reported that she was too damaged to be moved Admiralty formally adopted their advice and No. 2 dock thereafter became Victory ' s permanent home. [69]

During the initial restoration period from 1922 to 1929, a considerable amount of structural repair work was carried out above the waterline and mainly above the middle deck. On 8 April 1925, Victory was temporarily refloated within Portsmouth's No.2 dock, to adjust the supporting cradle and so that Victory's waterline would be at the a same level with the top of the dry dock. [80] This last refloating of HMS Victory was recorded by Pathé news cameras. [81] [82] In 1928, King George V was able to unveil a tablet celebrating the completion of the work, although restoration and maintenance still continued under the supervision of the Society for Nautical Research. [78] Restoration was suspended during the Second World War, and in 1941, Victory sustained further damage when a 500 lb. bomb [83] dropped by the Luftwaffe broke her keel, as can be seen in Plate 1 in The Anatomy of Nelsons Ships by C Nepean Longridge (1955), destroyed one of the steel cradles and part of the foremast. On one occasion, German radio propaganda claimed that the ship had been destroyed by a bomb, and the Admiralty had to issue a denial. [84]

In the 1950s, a number of preventive measures were instigated, including the removal of bulkheads to increase airflow and the fumigating of the ship against the deathwatch beetle. The following decade saw the replacement of much of the decayed oak with oily hardwoods such as teak and Iroko, which were believed to be more resistant to fungus and pests. [85] The decision to restore Victory to her Battle of Trafalgar configuration was taken in 1920, but the need to undertake these important repairs meant this was not achieved until 2005, in time for the Trafalgar 200 celebrations. [86] Victory ' s fore topsail was severely damaged during the Battle of Trafalgar, perforated by upwards of 90 cannonballs and other projectiles. It was replaced after the battle, but was preserved and eventually displayed in the Royal Naval Museum. [87]

21st century Edit

In November 2007, Victory ' s then commanding officer, Lieutenant Commander John Scivier, paid a visit to USS Constitution of the US Navy, which is the world's oldest commissioned naval vessel still afloat. He met Constitution ' s commanding officer, Commander William A. Bullard III, and discussed the possibility of arranging an exchange programme between the two ships. [88]

Listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, Victory has been the flagship of the First Sea Lord since October 2012. Prior to this, she was the flagship of the Second Sea Lord. [89] [90] She is the oldest commissioned warship in the world and attracts around 350,000 visitors per year in her role as a museum ship. [91] The current and 101st commanding officer is Lieutenant Commander Brian Smith, who assumed command in May 2015. [92]

In December 2011, Defence Equipment and Support awarded an initial five-year project management contract to BAE Systems, with an option to extend to ten years. The restoration is worth £16 million over the life of the contract and will include work to the masts and rigging, replacement side planking, and the addition of fire control measures. It is expected to be the most extensive refit since the ship returned from Trafalgar. In her current state she has no upper masts and minimum rigging. It is expected that it will be over 12 years before these are replaced. [93] [94]

Since this contract was placed, the most significant change has been on 5 March 2012, when ownership of the ship was transferred from the Ministry of Defence to a dedicated HMS Victory Preservation Trust, established as part of the National Museum of the Royal Navy. [95] According to the Royal Navy website, the move was "heralded by the announcement of a £25 million capital grant to support the new Trust by the Gosling Foundation—a donation which has been matched by a further £25 million from the MOD". [96]

Victory has also undergone emergency repair works to prevent the hull decaying and sagging. The hull is moving at a rate of half a centimetre each year, about 20 cm over the last 40 years although there are plans to create new hydraulic supports that will better fit the ship. [97] The ship will benefit from a £35 million restoration project, utilising Scottish elm and oak trees as wood for the restoration project. [98] [99]

Over the two centuries since Victory ' s launch, numerous admirals have hoisted their flag in her:


  1. Joosep

    skok kamentov

  2. Vomuro

    original and useful!

  3. Caddarik

    But I will say, for the edification of posterity,

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