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Frederick II Timeline

Frederick II Timeline


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  • 1194

    Frederick II is born in Jesi, Italy.

  • 1197

    Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, Frederick II's father, dies.

  • 1198 - 1250

    Frederick II rules over Sicily.

  • 1198

    Constance of Sicily, Frederick II's mother, dies.

  • 1198 - 1208

    Philip of Swabia, Frederick II's uncle, rules over Germany.

  • 1208

    Philip of Swabia was murdered.

  • 1209

    Frederick II marries Constance of Aragon and begins consolidating his hold over Sicily.

  • 1209 - 1215

    Otto IV rules Germany.

  • 1211

    Frederick II's first son, Henry VII, is born.

  • 1215 - 1250

    Frederick II rules over Germany.

  • 1215

    Frederick II defeats Otto IV, with the help of Philip Augustus of France.

  • 1218

    Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV dies.

  • 1218

    Yolande dies giving birth to Frederick II's second son: Conrad IV.

  • 1220 - 1250

    Frederick II rules over the Holy Roman Empire.

  • 1220

    Frederick II is crowned as the Holy Roman Emperor in Rome.

  • 1220

    Assizes of Capua enacted to gain control over Sicily.

  • 1221

    Assizes of Messina enacted.

  • 1222

    Frederick II's first wife, Constance of Aragon, dies.

  • 1224

    Frederick II establishes the University of Naples.

  • 1225 - 1228

    Frederick II rules as the king of Jerusalem.

  • 1225

    Frederick II marries Yolande/Isabella II of Jerusalem.

  • 1227

    Frederick II departs for a Crusade but turns back due to illness.

  • 1228 - 1229

    The Sixth Crusade is formed by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. It achieves through diplomacy Christian control of Jerusalem.

  • 7 Sep 1228

    Frederick II arrives in the Levant on the Sixth Crusade.

  • 1229 - 1230

    Frederick II's first war with the Papacy.

  • 18 Feb 1229

    The Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Frederick II and al-Kamil to hand over Jerusalem to Christian rule.

  • 1230

    Treaty of Cepranno signed between Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX.

  • 1231

    Constitutions of Melfi.

  • 1235

    Frederick II's son Henry VII revolts in Germany. Revolt is crushed.

  • 1236 - 1242

    Multiple Mongol armies attack western Asia, Russia, Poland, and Hungary.

  • 1237

    Battle of Cortenuova, Frederick II defeats the Lombards.

  • 1241

    Battle of Giglio, a decisive naval victory for the imperial fleet of Frederick II against the Genoese.

  • 1241

    Rome barely escapes Frederick II's grasp, as Gregory IX dies and the emperor turns back.

  • 1242

    Henry VII, King of Germany, dies.

  • 1245

    Innocent IV excommunicates and deposes Frederick II.

  • 1248

    Battle of Parma, imperial forces of Frederick II are routed by the Lombards.

  • 1249

    Battle of Fossalta, imperial forces are defeated by the army of Bologna.

  • 1250

    Frederick II dies.

  • 1250

    Battle of Cingoli, decisive imperial victory against an invasion force sent to Sicily.


Frederick II (the Great) (1712-1786), king of Prussia (1740-1786)

The Seven Years War started with success for Frederick, who invaded and occupied Saxony (August-October 1756). In January 1757 the Holy Roman Empire, led by Maria Theresa of Austria, declared war on Prussia. Frederick responded by invading Bohemia, where he defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Prague (6 May 1757), although he was forced to withdraw from Bohemia after defeat at Kolin (18 June 1757)K. The French and Austrians then invaded Saxony and Silesia, only to be defeated by Frederick at Rossbach (5 November) and Leuthen (5 December 1757), respectively. In 1758 Frederick was victorious over the Russians at Zorndorf (25 August 1758), although was defeated by the Austrians at Hochkirck (October 1758). By 1759, it looked like Frederick's enemies were finally benefiting from their overwhelming numerical advantage, with victories over Frederick at Kunersdorf (August) and Maxen (November). 1760 even saw the Russian's occupy Berlin (October), although they were soon forced to withdraw, and although Frederick defeated the Austrians at Torgau (3 November 1760), losses were so heavy on both sides that the campaigning stopped until the next year, when Ferdinand of Brunswick defeated the French at Vellinghause (15 July 1761). However, between Torgau and Vellinghause the shape of the war had changed for Prussia because of the death of two monarchs. First, the death of George II in 1760 ended British support to Frederick. Even Frederick appears to have felt defeat was near. However, he was saved by the accession of Peter III as Tsar of Russia (January 1762). Peter was an admirer of Frederick, and very quickly moved to end the war between them. Peace was made by the treaty of St. Petersburg (5 May 1762). Frederick was now free to concentrate on Austria, winning victories at Burkersdorf (21 July 1762) and Reichenback (16 August 1762), after which he was able to regain all of his lost territory. Peace was finally made by the Treaty of Hubertusberg (15 February 1763), which confirmed Prussia's control of Silesia and left Prussia dominant in Germany.

Frederick continued to expand Prussian power during the rest of his reign, gaining one third of Poland as a result of the First Partition of Poland (5 August 1772) and stopping Austria gaining power in Germany in the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778-79). By the time he died, Prussia was the dominant power in Germany, and an international power of the first rank


Frederick II Timeline - History

  • 500 - Germanic tribes move into northern Germany.
  • 113 - Germanic tribes begin to fight against the Roman Empire.
  • 57 - Much of the region is conquered by Julius Caesar and the Roman Empire during the Gallic Wars.





President Reagan at the Berlin Wall

Brief Overview of the History of Germany

The area that is now Germany was inhabited by Germanic speaking tribes for many centuries. They first became part of the Frankish Empire under the rule of Charlemagne, who is considered the father of the German monarchy. Much of Germany also became part of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1700 to 1918 the Kingdom of Prussia was established in Germany. In 1914 World War I broke out. Germany was on the losing side of the war and is estimated to have lost 2 million soldiers.


In the wake of WWI, Germany tried to recover. There was revolution and the monarchy collapsed. Soon a young leader named Adolf Hitler rose to power. He created the Nazi party which believed in the superiority of the German race. Hitler became dictator and decided to expand the German empire. He started WWII and at first conquered much of Europe including France. However, the United States, Britain and the Allies managed to defeat Hitler. After the war, Germany was divided into two countries East Germany and West Germany.

East Germany was a communist state under control of the Soviet Union, while West Germany was a free market state. The Berlin Wall was built between the two countries to prevent people from escaping from East Germany to the West. It became a central point and focus of the Cold War. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and communism, the wall was torn down in 1989. On October 3, 1990 East and West Germany were reunited into one country.


Death of Emperor Frederick II

The most gifted, vivid and extraordinary of the medieval Holy Roman Emperors died on December 13th, 1250.

Frederick II was ill for some months before his death. Early in December 1250 a fierce attack of dysentery confined him to his hunting lodge of Castel Fiorentino in the south of Italy, which was part of his kingdom of Sicily. He made his will on December 7th, specifying that if he did not recover, he should be buried in the cathedral at Palermo, and sinking fast, died on the 13th, a few days short of his fifty-sixth birthday. He was escorted to Sicily by his Saracen bodyguard and buried in a sarcophagus of red porphyry mounted on four carved lions. The body was wrapped in cloth of red silk covered with inscrutable arabesque designs and with a crusader’s cross on the left shoulder. The tomb can still be seen in Palermo Cathedral today.

When the news reached Rome, Pope Innocent IV was delighted. ‘Let heaven exult and the earth rejoice,’ he proclaimed in a message to the Sicilian bishops and people. One of his chaplains, Nicholas of Carbio, went further. God, he wrote, seeing the desperate danger in which the storm-tossed ‘bark of Peter’ stood, snatched away ‘the tyrant and son of Satan,’ who ‘died horribly, deposed and excommunicated, suffering excruciatingly from dysentery, gnashing his teeth, frothing at the mouth and screaming…’.

However vilely expressed, the relief of the pope and his party at Frederick’s death was understandable, for the emperor had seemed to be on the verge of triumph at last in his long struggle with the papacy. Born in Italy in 1194, heir to the Hohenstaufen territories in Germany and grandson of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, he was also the heir to the Norman kingdom of Sicily. His father died young when Frederick was two, he was crowned King of Sicily at the age of three and his mother died before he was four. At fourteen he came of age and took control of Sicily. He went on to defeat his rival for the German kingship and in 1220, aged twenty-five, he was crowned emperor in St Peter’s, Rome, by Pope Honorius III. This made him, in theory at least, the temporal head of Christ’s people on earth and the overlord of northern Italy. The fact that he was also the ruler of southern Italy and Sicily, on Rome’s doorstep, put him on collision course with the popes.

Frederick astonished his contemporaries because he was more like an oriental despot than a European king. His brilliant court at Palermo blended Norman, Arabic and Jewish elements in a culture full of the warm south. He was witty, entertaining and cruel in several different languages. He kept a harem, guarded by black eunuchs. He had dancing girls, an Arab chef and a menagerie of elephants, lions and camels. He founded towns and industries and he effficiently codified laws. A man of serious intellectual distinction, he hobnobbed amicably with Jewish and Muslim sages. He encouraged scholarship, poetry and mathematics, and original thinking in all areas. He was a fine horseman and swordsman, went coursing with leopards and panthers, and wrote the first classic medieval textbook on falconry.

Frederick’s openness to ideas made him profoundly suspect. He was supposed to have described Moses, Christ and Muhammad as a trio of deluded charlatans. His demands that the Church renounce its wealth and return to apostolic poverty and simplicity did not sit well with the papacy and its supporters, who branded him as Antichrist. Through his second wife, Yolande of Brienne, he claimed the kingdom of Jerusalem and in 1228 he led the sixth crusade to the Holy Land. Preferring diplomacy and the force of his personality to the warlike methods of earlier crusaders, he successfully negotiated with the Sultan of Egypt the hand-over of Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth. In 1229 he crowned himself King of Jerusalem in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The pope, who had excommunicated him the year before, was not pleased.

Historians used to see Frederick as a Renaissance prince born before his time, or even as the first truly modern man. Writers more recently have preferred to view him in the context of his own day. There is no doubt, however, that he astounded his contemporaries, who called him stupor mundi, ‘wonder of the world’. Such was the impact he made that many people could not believe he had really died. Stories sprang up that he had gone to the depths of Etna or a mountain in Germany where he was biding his time to return, reform the Church and re-establish the good order of the pax Romana of old. In reality his policy virtually died with him. His claim as Caesar Augustus, Imperator Romanorum, to pre-eminence over all the princes of Europe was fatally out of date.


Frederick the Great

In 1741, Prussia consisted of scattered territories across central Europe and few significant allies save for Great Britain. Sensing weakness in the Austrian Empire, Frederick deceived Habsburg Queen Maria Theresa to allow his armies to occupy Lower Silesia in exchange for protection from France, Spain and Bavaria. He then proceeded to invade key areas, forcing Maria Theresa to cede almost all of Silesia by 1745.

In 1756, Austria, backed by France and Russia, tried to regain control of Silesia. Frederick struck preemptively, invading Saxony, and with his ally Great Britain started the Seven Years War. In a series of battles to the death, Frederick lost territory, then gained it, then lost it again. In 1760, Austro-Russian forces occupied Berlin, and Frederick, reduced to despair, considered suicide. However, the death of Empress Elizabeth of Russia placed advocate Peter III on the throne and Russia withdrew from the war. Although Frederick did not gain territory, the ensuing treaty allowed him to retain Silesia and made him popular throughout the many German-speaking territories. Prussia became one of the preeminent powers in Europe.

Domestically, Frederick&aposs Enlightenment influence was more evident. He reformed the military and government, established religious tolerance and granted a basic form of freedom of the press. He bolstered the legal system and established the first German code of law. Of all things, Frederick the Great, as he became to be known, left a legacy of devotion to Germany that set the example for leaders into the 20th century.


The Philosophers’ Palace

In the late 1740s Frederick began building an extravagant summer palace in Potsdam, near Berlin. In homage to his Francophile leanings, it was given the French name of Sanssouci, meaning “carefree.” Frederick envisioned his estate as a kind of Versailles for Berlin, a place given over to the enjoyment of the arts and the exploration of the latest trends in Enlightenment thinking.

Intellectuals traveled from all over Europe to Sanssouci, among them mathematician Pierre-Louis Maupertuis, whom Frederick summoned to head the Berlin Academy. Maupertuis’s ostentatious wigs and high-pitched voice made quite an impression, as did his intellect. In the 1730s, he had proven that the world was flattened at the poles, just as Isaac Newton had predicted.

The French philosopher Julien Offroy de La Mettrie also took up residence at Sanssouci. His famous book, L’Homme-machine (The Human Machine) argued for a materialistic—and, some argued, an atheistic—understanding of human motivations. Mettrie was one of a number of colorful and controversial houseguests at Sanssouci, which also included the French writer Marquis d’Argens. Among other works, the marquis is credited with Thérèse philosophe, a best-selling 1748 novel that blended pornography with philosophical musings on female sexuality and religious power in society.

But the most coveted of all the jewels in Frederick’s court was undoubtedly François-Marie Arouet, better known by his pseudonym, Voltaire. By the time Frederick was building Sanssouci, Voltaire was the most famous intellectual in Europe, loved and hated for his stinging attacks on power and his rallying cry for religious freedom and rational thought. He arrived in Prussia in 1750, grieving the death of his lover, the Marquise du Châtelet. The French king Louis XV, contemptuous toward the Enlightenment thinkers, was said to have declared: “One more madman in the Prussian court and one less in mine.”


Patents and Honors

Over the course of his career, Jones received more than 60 patents. While the majority pertained to refrigeration technologies, others related to X-ray machines, engines and sound equipment.

Jones was recognized for his achievements both during his lifetime and after his death. In 1944, he became the first African American elected to the American Society of Refrigeration Engineers. Jones died of lung cancer in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on February 21, 1961.

In 1991, President George H.W. Bush awarded the National Medal of Technology posthumously to Numero and Jones, presenting the awards to their widows at a ceremony held in the White House Rose Garden. Jones was the first African American to receive the award, though he did not live to receive it. He was inducted into the Minnesota Inventors Hall of Fame in 1977.


Years: 753 - 1806 Subject: History, Regional and National History
Publisher: HistoryWorld Online Publication Date: 2012
Current online version: 2012 eISBN: 9780191737619

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Curt Herzstark designs Curta calculator

Curt Herzstark was an Austrian engineer who worked in his family’s manufacturing business until he was arrested by the Nazis in 1943. While imprisoned at Buchenwald concentration camp for the rest of World War II, he refines his pre-war design of a calculator featuring a modified version of Leibniz’s “stepped drum” design. After the war, Herzstark’s Curta made history as the smallest all-mechanical, four-function calculator ever built.


King in Prussia and Military Successes

Frederick assumed the throne in 1740 after the death of his father. He was officially known as King in Prussia, not King of Prussia, because he only inherited a portion of what was traditionally known as Prussia—the lands and titles he assumed in 1740 were actually a series of small areas often separated by large areas not under his control. Over the next thirty-two years, Frederick would use the military prowess of the Prussian Army and his own strategic and political genius to reclaim the entirely of Prussia, finally declaring himself King of Prussia in 1772 after decades of warfare.

Frederick inherited an army that was not only large, it had also been shaped into the premier fighting force in Europe at the time by his military-minded father. With the goal of a united Prussia, Frederick lost little time plunging Europe into war.

  • War of the Austrian Succession. Frederick’s first move was to challenge the ascension of Maria Theresa as the head of the House of Hapsburg, including the title of Holy Roman Empress. Despite being female and thus traditionally ineligible for the position, Maria Theresa’s legal claims were rooted in legal work laid down by her father, who was determined to keep the Hapsburg lands and power in the family hands. Frederick refused to acknowledge Maria Theresa’s legitimacy and used this as an excuse to occupy the province of Silesia. He had a minor claim to the province, but it was officially Austrian. With France as a powerful ally, Frederick fought for the next five years, using his well-trained professional army brilliantly and defeating the Austrians in 1745, securing his claim to Silesia.
  • The Seven Years War. In 1756 Frederick once again surprised the world with his occupation of Saxony, which was officially neutral. Frederick acted in response to a political environment that saw many of the European powers arrayed against him he suspected his enemies would move against him and so acted first, but miscalculated and was nearly destroyed. He managed to fight the Austrians well enough to force a peace treaty that returned the borders to their 1756 status. Although Frederick had failed to retain Saxony, he did hold onto Silesia, which was remarkable considering he’d come very close to losing the war outright.
  • Partition of Poland. Frederick had a low opinion of the Polish people and wished to take Poland for himself in order to exploit it economically, with the ultimate goal of driving out the Polish people and replacing them with Prussians. Over the course of several wars, Frederick used propaganda, military victories, and diplomacy to eventually seize large portions of Poland, expanding and linking his holdings and increasing Prussian influence and power.

William Havermeyer, the founder of what will become Domino Sugar, begins a career in the New York City sugar business with his brother, Frederick

The Havermeyers open their own refinery in New York City, which is passed on to their sons in 1828.

The Fanjul family begins sugar farming and production in Cuba.

John Redpath celebrates the opening of the “Canada Sugar Refinery” in Montreal, where 100 employees produced 15 tons of refined “loaf” sugar per day.

The Thames Refinery in London’s East End begins operations, specializing in cube sugar.

Abram Lyle & Sons opens the Plaistow Plant, 1.5 miles from the Thames Refinery. Lyle’s Golden Syrup quickly becomes popular.

Sugar refining commences in Yonkers, New York.

The brand name, Domino®, is officially adopted by a New York-based sugar company.

Domino® Sugar receives a U.S. trademark.

The California and Hawaiian Sugar Refining Company, today known as C&H Sugar, begins refining in Crockett, California.

The Chalmette Refinery opens in Louisiana.

Redpath introduces product innovations, such as prepackaged cartons of granulated sugar, “Paris Lumps” (sugar cubes) and “Golden Syrup.”

Henry Tate & Sons and Abram Lyle & Sons merge to form Tate & Lyle, refining about 50% of the United Kingdom’s sugar.

The Baltimore Refinery opens in Maryland.

Ingenio San Nicolás is founded in Veracruz, Mexico.

The “Domino Sugars” sign goes up at the Baltimore Refinery

Redpath opens a state-of-the-art refinery in Toronto, Canada, on the shores of Lake Ontario. It was an occasion of such significance that Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip attended the official opening ceremony.

The Fanjul family reestablishes its sugar business in South Florida. Today, the company is known as Florida Crystals.

Joining together, 52 family farmers create Sugar Cane Growers Cooperative of Florida.

Sidul begins refining and packaging sugar in Lisbon, Portugal.

Sores is purchased and merged with Sidul.

Florida Crystals plants the United States’ first organic sugarcane.

Florida Crystals and Sugar Cane Growers Cooperative of Florida partner to acquire the Yonkers Refinery in New York state, beginning to create the world’s most innovative sugar company: American Sugar Refining (ASR).

Domino Sugar is acquired with three cane sugar refineries and the nation’s leading sugar brand, Domino®. The company becomes American Sugar Refining, Inc.

American Sugar Refining, Inc. acquires C&H Sugar, the leading brand on the U.S. West Coast.

C&H Sugar celebrates its centennial.

Chr. Hansen’s specialty sweetener division is acquired, adding to our offering of specialty sweetener products, with production facilities in Louisiana and Illinois.

Lyle’s Golden Syrup® is named the world’s oldest brand.

The Company expands geographically into Canada by acquiring Redpath Sugar.

To seamlessly supply customers throughout North America, the Company expands into Mexico with the purchase of the Ingenio San Nicolás Sugar Mill and Refinery in Veracruz.

Sugar Stix is acquired, marking the Company's entrance into the specialty tabletop business.

The Toronto Refinery celebrates its 50th anniversary.

The Chalmette Refinery celebrates its centennial.

Company acquires Tate & Lyle Sugars, owner of two refineries with sugar marketed under leading brands in the UK and Portugal.

Streamline Foods is acquired

ASR acquires a majority interest in Belize Sugar Industries, Ltd. (BSI), a supplier of Fairtrade cane sugar

The Company expands into the Italian market by acquiring 50% ownership of SRB S.p.A. with a cane sugar refinery in southern Italy.

Following more than a decade of growth, we introduce our new corporate brand name, ASR Group, under which our leading brands and affiliated companies would collectively present one face to employees, customers, business partners and others around the world.

American Sugar Refining, Inc. acquires US Sugar Company, a processor and packager of granulated, brown, and powdered sugar in Buffalo, New York.

American Sugar Refining, Inc. joins partnership with Florida Crystals and Sugar Cane Growers Cooperative investing in Tellus Products, a one-of-a-kind sustainable packaging company that produces sustainable, compostable, single-use tableware and food service products made from Florida-grown sugarcane.


Watch the video: Die Geschichte Preußens I Geschichte (July 2022).


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